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Pre-Workout Nutrition to Minimize Oxidative Load for Explosive Power

GSH Ignite™ is a 100% all-natural protein supplement that delivers the cellular energy you need when you need it—pre-workout, mid-performance or both. GSH Ignite’s proprietary blend of clinically proven ingredients defends your cells against free radical damage by increasing your GSH (glutathione) and SOD (super oxide dismutase) levels.

GSH and SOD are your body's most powerful intracellular antioxidants. But as you age, their production declines, leaving your cells vulnerable to free radicals and forcing them to decrease their energy production. Elevating your SOD and GSH levels allows cells to produce more energy, more efficiently for a natural, sustained energy boost throughout your day.

Athletes who have first-hand experience with the destructive side effects of “quick fix” products are choosing supplements, like GSH Ignite, to enhance performance and well being naturally. Ignite is perfect for the health-conscious who want to skip or cut back on the coffee and energy drinks for a naturally sustained boost.

Not all proteins are created equal
You need extra protein to maintain, repair, and grow lean muscle mass. Protein is important because it shortens your recovery time and improves muscle strength. But not all proteins are created equal. GSH Ignite is clinically proven to:
  • Increase strength and explosive power†
  • Decreases muscle fatigue†
  • Enhance athletic performance†
  • Reduce respiratory fatigue†
  • Supports healthy heart function†
  • Increases lean body mass†
  • Boosts your immune system†
  • Supports healthy joints and cells†

GSH Ignite As Pre-workout Nutrition

The Ignite Naturals product line is designed for experienced athletes and the health-conscious who want a natural solution for enhancing performance, increasing energy and managing weight.

Whether you’re training for the Ironman or powering through an intense strength training session, pre-workout nutrition is the most critical element when it comes to setting new personal records. With no artificial ingredients or flavors, GSH Ignite can be mixed with water, coconut water and other mix-ins for even more protein.

GSH Ignite For Mid-performance Energy Boost

Power. Strength. Performance. Naturally. As a protein-packed energy boost, GSH Ignite provides the cellular energy you need while protecting your cells from free radical damage. GSH Ignite reduces and even delays the onset of muscle and respiratory fatigue while increasing your peak power and strength. Push yourself harder, faster and longer. With GSH Ignite, your body can take it.

GSH Ignite addresses three main factors that affect performance energy:
  • Supports cellular respiration†
  • Reduces muscle fatigue†
  • Reduces respiratory fatigue†

GSH Ignite Is “Whey” More Than Your Average Protein Drink

GSH Ignite’s premium quality undenatured hormone-free whey protein boosts your immune system and raises your body’s own natural energy production. Add a proprietary blend of all-natural ingredients and you’ve got even more performance-enhancing benefits – all in a single serving.

GSH Ignite optimizes cellular function. Free radicals steal electrons from stable molecules, causing damage to cellular function, energy production, and even your DNA. GSH Ignite’s ingredients boost performance energy by binding to and neutralizing free radicals before they sabotage your performance and health.

GSH Ignite’s propriety blend of antioxidants supports your immune system and helps your body fight off disease and infection. Free radicals increase pro-inflammatory cytokines, which tax your immune system leaving your body vulnerable to illness and disease. GSH Ignite (natural cocoa) is full of antioxidants including:
  • Goji berries are small red berries containing an extensive list of beneficial compounds and essential nutrients, including 18 amino acids, 6 essential vitamins, 5 carotenoids, and 2 essential fatty acids.
  • Organic turmeric is made from the root of the turmeric plant, shown to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, as well as the ability to selectively kill a wide range of tumor cells.
  • Cordyceps (mushrooms) have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immune boosting properties. They are believed to provide the body with increased energy by enhancing myocardial ATP generation and mitochondrial electron transport.
  • Organic cocoa, ground from the seeds of the cacao tree, has been found to be an effective antioxidant, as well as providing neurotransmitters that increase mental alertness, focus, and happiness.
  • Coconut oil contains significant quantities of monolauric acid—also found in human breast milk— that boosts immunity against microbial infections and viruses.
  • Bacopa Monnieri (herb) is used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine as a memory enhancer, anti-inflammatory agent, nerve tonic and heart tonic.
  • Royal jelly is honeybee secretions found to possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti- fatigue and immune boosting properties.
  • Glisodin is a patented 100% vegetable source of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). It stimulates cellular defense against free radicals, boosting your immune system and helping to protect your skin from sun damage.
  • Grape seed extract protects blood capillaries and heart function, as well as being an anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent.




GSH Ignite ingredients and selected studies

Whey Protein

Our highest quality un-denatured whey protein, derived from hormone-free dairy, is more than just a nutritional protein. It also acts as a cysteine donor to increase intracellular glutathione production, protecting and energizing cells as well as boosting the immune system. Undenatured whey protein has been shown to significantly enhance muscular performance, including peak power and work capacity (strength). It promotes a natural anabolic state in the body, the formation of lean muscle mass, and may also enhance endurance by fighting against oxidative stress, which causes muscle fatigue.

1. Effect of supplementation with a cysteine donor on muscular performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 87, 1381–1385. Lands, L. C., Grey, V. L. & Smountas, A. A. 1999

2. The biological activity of undenatured dietary whey proteins: role of glutathione. Clin. Invest. Med. 14: 296 – 309, 1991. Bounous, G., and P. Gold.

3. Oxidants and antioxidants in exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 675 – 686, 1995. Sen, C. K.

4. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: glutathione supplementation and deficiency. J. Appl. Physiol. 77: 2177 – 2187, 1994. Sen, C. K., M. Atalay, and O. Hanninen.

5. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass. Nutr J. 2008 Aug 27;7:23. Treyzon, L et al.

6. Protein nutrition, exercise and aging. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):601S-609S. Evans WJ.

7. Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):134S-139S. Phillips SM, Hartman JW, Wilkinson SB.

8. Cellular Mechanisms of Resistance to Chronic Oxidative Stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1998 June; 24 (9): 1375-1389. Yutaka Sagara, et al.

9. Glutathione S-transferase π localizes in mitochondria and protects against oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2009 May; 46 (10):1392-1403. Shinji Goto et al.

Organic Cocoa

Our organic cocoa powder is ground from the seeds of the cacao tree. Scientific research has found cocoa to be an effective antioxidant, as well as providing neurotransmitters that increase mental alertness, focus, and happiness.

In addition, several compounds found in cocoa promote healthy heart function and help degrade atherosclerotic plaque that can build up in arteries and deprive organs and tissues of essential blood if left untreated. Finally, the arginine present in cocoa, which is the precursor for nitric oxide, helps accelerates recovery time and decrease blood pressure.

Selected Studies:

Enzymatic function of nitric oxide synthases. Cardiovascular Research43 (3): 521–531 REVIEW. Andrew, P.J.; Myer, B. (August 15 1999).

L-Arginine and hypertension. Journal of Nutrition134 (10 Suppl): 2807S-2811S REVIEW. Gokce, N.. (October 2004).

Exogenous L-arginine ameliorates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and renal damage in rats. Hypertension52 (6): 1084–1090. Rajapakse, N.W.; et al. (December 2008).

Arginine supplementation and wound healing. Nutrition in Clinical Practice20 (13): 52–61 REVIEW. Stechmiller, J.K.; et al. (February 2005).

Arginine physiology and its implication for wound healing. Wound Repair and Regeneration11 (6): 419–423 REVIEW. Witte, M.B.; Barbul, A (Nov-Dec 2003).

Heart-healthy Compound In Chocolate Identified. ScienceDaily. University of California - Davis (2006, January 20).

Goji Berry

Small red berries from a plant native to southeastern Europe and Asia, goji berries are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and are a popular ingredient in Chinese tonic soups, where they are thought to improve circulation, fertility and sexual function.

Scientific research has found goji berries to contain an extensive list of beneficial compounds and essential nutrients, including 18 amino acids, 6 essential vitamins, 5 caretenoids, and 2 essential fatty acids. They have also been shown to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties, and help to protect neurons and boost immunity.

Selected Studies:

Antioxidant activities of some common ingredients of traditional chinese medicine, Angelica sinensis, Lycium barbarum and Poria cocos. Phytother Res 18 (12): 1008–12. Wu SJ, Ng LT, Lin CC (December 2004).

Fasting plasma zeaxanthin response to Fructus barbarum L. (wolfberry; Kei Tze) in a food-based human supplementation trial. Br. J. Nutr. 93 (1): 123–30. Cheng CY, Chung WY, Szeto YT, Benzie IF (January 2005).

Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine Lycium barbarum against beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. Exp. Gerontol. 40 (8-9): 716–27. Yu MS, Leung SK, Lai SW, et al. (2005).

Immunomodulation and antitumor activity by a polysaccharide-protein complex from Lycium barbarum. Int. Immunopharmacol. 4 (4): 563–9. Gan L, Hua Zhang S, Liang Yang X, Bi Xu H (April 2004).

Effect of the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on age-related oxidative stress in aged mice. J Ethnopharmacol 111 (3): 504–11. Li XM, Ma YL, Liu XJ (May 2007).

Recent development of antitumor agents from Chinese herbal medicines. Part II. High molecular compounds. Planta Med. 69 (3): 193–201. Tang W, Hemm I, Bertram B (March 2003).

Coconut oil

Naturally derived from the coconut, coconut oil is a proven antioxidant. It contains significant quantities of monolauric acid – also found in human breast milk – which boosts immunity against microbial infections and viruses.

The majority of the fats provided by coconut oil are medium chain triglycerides, which are easily digested, absorbed and utilized by the body, proving an especially beneficial energy source to athletes. They have been shown to posses thermogenic (fat burning) properties, and may enhance endurance in athletes, though the studies are not conclusive.

Selected Studies:

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids 44 (7): 593–601. Assunção, ML (July 2009).

Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats Food Chemistry, Volume 99, Issue 2, 2006, Pages 260-266. K.G. Nevin, T. Rajamohan.

Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36, 950 –962. Bach, A.C. and Babayan, V.K. (1982).

Thermogenesis in man during overfeeding with medium chain triglycerides. Metabolism 38, 641– 648. Hill, J.O., Peters, J.C., Yang, D., Sharp, T., Kaler, M., Abumarad, N.N., and Greene, H.L. (1989).

The role of medium-chain triglycerides in exercise. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 6, 121–133. Berning, J.R. (1996).

Effects of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO and endurance in runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26, 81– 88. Muoio, D.H., Leddy, J.J., Horvath, P.J., Awad, A.B., and Pendergast, D.R. (1992).

Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 287–293. Lambert, E.V., Speechly, D.P., Dennis, S.C., and Noakes, T.D. (1994).

Turmeric

Turmeric is a medicine and spice made from the root of the turmeric plant, native to tropical South Asia. It has been used for centuries in South Asian cooking and Ayurvedic medicine, where it is believed to have beneficial antiseptic, antibacterial and digestive properties and is used as a blood purifier, amongst other applications.

Scientific research has shown it to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, as well as the ability to selectively kill a wide range of tumor cells. Turmeric has been shown to increase glutathione and SOD levels significantly in heart and liver tissues depleted by inflammation. Turmeric is also currently being investigated as a treatment for Alzheimer’s.

Selected Studies:

Role of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 43, Issue 4, 15 August 2007, Pages 568-580. Santosh K. Sandur, Haruyo Ichikawa, Manoj K. Pandey, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Bokyung Sung, Gautam Sethi, Bharat B. Aggarwal

Curcumin induces the degradation of cyclin E expression through ubiquitin-dependent pathway and up-regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 in multiple human tumor cell lines. Biochemical Pharmacology, Volume 73, Issue 7, 1 April 2007, Pages 1024-1032. Bharat B. Aggarwal, Sanjeev Banerjee, Uddalak Bharadwaj, Bokyung Sung, Shishir Shishodia, Gautam Sethi

Immunomodulatory effects of curcumin: In-vivo. International Immunopharmacology, Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2008, Pages 688-700. Ch. Varalakshmi, A. Mubarak Ali, B.V.V. Pardhasaradhi, Raghvendra M. Srivastava, Sarvjeet Singh, Ashok Khar

Role of phenolic O-H and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1 September 2003, Pages 475-484. K. Indira Priyadarsini, Dilip K. Maity, G. H. Naik, M. Sudheer Kumar, M. K. Unnikrishnan, J. G. Satav, Hari Moha

Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: Evidence of its antioxidant property. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 3 April 2010. Suresh R Naik, Vishnu N Thakare, Snehal R Patil

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)

CLA is a naturally occurring component of the fats found in meat and dairy products and is an antioxidant. It has been shown to help reduce body fat and increase lean muscle mass. It has also been shown to help fight inflammation, reduce risk for cardiovascular disease, and also possesses anti-cancer properties.

Selected Studies:

Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1203-11. Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA.

Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. Journal of Nutrition 130 (12): 2943–2948. Blankson H, Stakkestad JA, Fagertun H, Thom E, Wadstein J, Gudmundsen O. (1 December 2000).

Inhibition of carcinogenesis by conjugated linoleic acid: potential mechanisms of action. J Nutr. 2002 Oct;132(10):2995-8. Belury MA.

Inflammation and conjugated linoleic acid: mechanisms of action and implications for human health. J. Physiol. Biochem. 61 (3): 483–94. Zulet MA, Marti A, Parra MD, Martínez JA (September 2005).

Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and cancer. J Nutr. 2007 Dec;137(12):2599-607. Kelley NS, Hubbard NE, Erickson KL.

Conjugated linoleic acid. A powerful anticarcinogen from animal fat sources. Cancer 233 (3): 1050–4. Ip C, Scimeca JA, Thompson HJ. (1994).

Luo Han Guo

Luo Han Guo is a fruit native to southern China and is used as a low calorie sweetener and medicine. It is also known as the longevity fruit, and is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to help treat chronic lung ailments and increase lifespan, amongst other things. Scientific research suggests that it is an antioxidant and may help prevent cancer. It may also prove effective in helping to treat diabetes and obesity.

Selected Studies:

Antioxidant property of fructus momordicae extract. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 1996; 40 (6): 1111-1121. Shi H, et al.

Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds. Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1309-1316. Konoshima T and Takasaki M.

Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Supplement 1997; 27: 59-67. Katiyar SK and Mukhtar H.

Trimethylglycine (TMG):

TMG, also known as betaine, is an organic compound found in food such as beets, quinoa and spinach, and is essential for human well being. TMG helps to stabilize protein and prevent it from breaking down, playing an anabolic role in the body. It also serves as a methyl donor, working to normalize the efficiency of methylation/sulfation pathways, and is required for mitochondrial protein and nucleic acid synthesis. It maintains cellular replication, liver function and helps detoxify cells from certain substances. TMG is critical to protect cells from hyperosmotic stress, and assists in cell volume regulation.

While TMG supplementation has been proven to increase lean muscle mass and decrease body fat in livestock and is widely used in the industry, few studies have been done on humans. More comprehensive studies are necessary, though a ‘highly significant’ negative association between TMG levels in the blood and obesity has already been established (the higher your percentage of body fat, the lower your plasma TMG concentration).

Select Studies:

The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Clinical Biochemistry, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 March 2010. Michael Lever, Sandy Slow.

N-trimethylglycine (betaine) transport is critical to protect HEPG2 cells from hyperosmotic stress. Gastroenterology, Volume 108, Issue 4, Supplement 3, April 1995, Page A1040. JC Bucuvalas, JA Bezerra, C. Schmidt, CE Burnham.

Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women. J Nutr 2008;138:914–20. Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Nygård O, Bleie Ø, Ueland PM.

Betaine Supplementation and Blood Lipids: Fact or Artifact? Nutr Rev 2006;64:77–9. Szegedi SS, Castro CC, Koutmos M, Garrow TA. Betaine-homocysteine S-Zeisel SH.

Methyl donor supplementation prevents transgenerational amplification of obesity. Int J Obesity 2008;32:1373–9. Waterland RA, Travisano M, Tahiliani KG, Rached MT, Mirza S.

Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenic enzyme activities and fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in nishing pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2008;140:36575. Huang QC, Xu ZR, Han XY, Han XY, Li WF.

Organic Cordyceps:

Cordyceps is a species of mushroom that has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Tibetan Medicine, and is renowned for its immune enhancing and energetic properties. It came to the attention of the West when 3 Chinese runners taking cordyceps broke 5 world records at the 1993 National Games in Beijing.

Scientific research has found it to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immune boosting properties. It is also believed to provide the body with increased energy by enhancing myocardial ATP generation and mitochondrial electron transport.

Selected Studies:

Free radical scavenging and apoptotic effects of Cordycepssinensis fractionated by supercritical carbon dioxide. FoodChemToxicol. 2005 Apr;43(4):543-52. Wang BJ, et al.

Effects of Cordycepsmilitarisextract on angiogenesis and tumorgrowth. ActaPharmacol Sin. 2004 May;25(5):657-65. Yoo HS, et al.

Anti-tumour and immuno-stimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces japonica, a new type of Cordyceps spp. Phytother Res. 2003 Aug;17(7):
830-3. Shin KH, et al.

Antioxidant activity of the extracts from fruiting bodies of cultured Cordycepssinensis. Phytother Res. 2000 Dec;14(8):647-9. Yamaguchi Y, et al.

Methanol extract of Cordycepspruinosa inhibits in vitro and in vivo inflammatory mediators by suppressing NF-kappaB activation. ToxicolApplPharmacol. 2003 Jul 1;190(1):1-8. Kim KM.

A characteristic pharmacological action of 'Yang-invigorating' Chinese tonifying herbs: enhancement of myocardial ATP-generation capacity. Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov;13(9-10):636-42. Epub 2006 May 2. Ko KM, Leon TY, Mak DH, Chiu PY, Du Y, Poon MK.

Pharmacological basis of 'Yin-nourishing' and 'Yang-invigorating' actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb. Life Sci. 2004 Dec 10;76(4):385-95. Siu KM, Mak DH, Chiu PY, Poon MK, Du Y, Ko KM.

Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa is a plant used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine as, amongst other things, a memory enhancer, anti-inflammatory agent, nerve tonic and heart tonic. Scientific research has bolstered these findings, deeming it an antioxidant, neuroprotectant, anti-inflammatory, adaptogen (protects against stress) and cognitive enhancer.

Selected Studies:

Cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Bacopa monnieri in Alzheimer's disease model. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 127, Issue 1, 8 January 2010, Pages 26-31. Nongnut Uabundit, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Supaporn Mucimapura, Kornkanok Ingkaninan

Anti-inflammatory activity of Bacopa monniera in rodents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 104, Issues 1-2, 8 March 2006, Pages 286-289 Shabana Channa, Ahsana Dar, Shazia Anjum, Muhammad Yaqoob, Atta-ur-Rahman

Neuroprotective efficacy of Bacopa monnieri against rotenone induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. NeuroToxicology, Volume 30, Issue 6, November 2009, Pages 977-985. Ravikumar Hosamani, Muralidhara

Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview. Phytomedicine, Volume 12, Issue 4, 20 April 2005, Pages 305-317. A. Russo, F. Borrelli

N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC)

NAC is a precursor to the amino acid L-cysteine and to reduced glutathione (GSH). NAC counteracts oxidative stress and replenishes glutathione levels, as well as supports healthy heart function. It is also an anti-inflammatory agent, and may help athletes speed recovery by supporting skeletal muscle microcirculation. It has also been shown to reduce exercise-induced diaphragm and respiratory fatigue, a key limiting factor in physical performance.

In several clinical trials, cysteine supplementation improved skeletal muscle functions, including strength, decreased the body fat/lean body mass ratio, improved immune functions, and increased plasma albumin levels (which helps maintain muscle mass and promotes a natural anabolic state in the body, amongst other functions). Scientific research has found that the dietary consumption of cysteine is generally insufficient, and that virtually everyone is likely to have a cysteine deficiency sooner or later.

Selected Studies:

Effects of N-acetylcysteine on respiratory muscle fatigue during heavy exercise. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 165, Issue 1, 1 January 2009, Pages 67-72. Megan K. Kelly, Reneé J. Wicker, Thomas J. Barstow, Craig A. Harms.

N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 94: 2468 – 2474, 1994. Reid, M. B., D. S. Stokic, S. M. Koch, F. A. Khawli, and A. A. Leis.

Effect of N-acetylcysteine on diaphragm fatigue. J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 2107 – 2113, 1990. Shindoh, C., A. DiMarco, A. Thomas, P. Manubay, and G. Supinski.

Antioxidant effects of stereoisomers of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), L-NAC and D-NAC, on angiotensin II-stimulated MAP kinase activation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Aug;95(4):483-6. Epub 2004 Aug 5. Kyaw M, Yoshizumi M, Tsuchiya K, Izawa Y, Kanematsu Y, Fujita Y, Ali N, Ishizawa K, Yamauchi A, Tamaki T.

The antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine: Its reaction with hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 6, 1989, Pages 593-597. Okezie I. Aruoma, Barry Halliwell, Brigid M. Hoey, John Butle.

Acute effects of N-acetylcysteine on skeletal muscle microcirculation following closed soft tissue trauma in rats. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Volume 23, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages 231-241. Klaus-D. Schaser, Herman J. Bail, Lioba Schewior, John F. Stover, Ingo Melcher, Norbert P. Haas, Thomas Mittlmeier.

Royal Jelly

Royal jelly is a food made by workers bees but consumed only by the queen bee. While the queen and the workers possess the same genes and anatomy, on a diet of royal jelly the queen grows one and a half times larger than the workers and lives up to 40 times longer. Royal jelly has been found to possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and immune boosting properties, amongst others.

Selected Studies:

Trace and mineral elements in royal jelly and homeostatic effects. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 19, Issues 2-3, 2 December 2005, Pages 183-189. Andreas Stocker, Peter Schramel, Antonius Kettrup, Eberhard Bengsch

Analysis of anti-allergic function of royal jelly. Natural Med. 55, 174 – 180. Kataoka, M., Arai, N., Taniguchi, Y., Kohno, K., Iwaki, K., Ikeda, M., Kurimoto, M., 2001.

The antioxidant properties of Royal jelly. Jpn. Pharmacol. Ther. 24, 1463 – 1471. Kuwahara, Y., Hori, Y., Yoneta, T., Ikeda, Y., 1996. [in Japanese].

Antiutumor effect of royal jelly. Folia Pharmacol. Japon 89, 73 – 80. Tamura, T., Fujii, A., Kumoyama, N., 1987. [in Japanese].

Royal Jelly prolongs the life span of C3H/HeJ mice: correlation with reduced DNA damage. Experimental Gerontology, Volume 38, Issue 9, 1 September 2003, Pages 965-969. Shin-ichiro Inoue, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Shimpei Ushio, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto.

Screening of biological activities present in honeybee (Apis mellifera) royal jelly Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 19, Issue 5, August 2005, Pages 645-651. L.A. Salazar-Olivo, V. Paz-González

Major royal jelly protein 3 modulates immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Life Sciences, Volume 73, Issue 16, 5 September 2003, Pages 2029-2045. Iwao Okamoto, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Toshio Kunikata, Keizo Kohno, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto

Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB)

HMB is a natural acid made in the human body that comes from the essential amino acid leucine (it is a metabolite of leucine). It has a protein anabolic effect and is good for increasing lean muscle mass and increasing muscle strength during exercise. HMB has been shown to prevent exercise-induced protein degradation and muscle damage. It has also been shown to promote muscle cell proliferation, cell differentiation and fusion, and enhance muscle cell survival.

Selected Studies:

Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein metabolism in whole body and in selected tissues. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 47, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 255-259. M. Holecek, T. Muthny, M. Kovarik, L. Sispera

Creatine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition, Volume 17, Issues 7-8, July-August 2001, Pages 558-566. Ewa Jówko, Piotr Ostaszewski, Michal Jank, Jaroslaw Sacharuk, Agnieszka Zieniewicz, Jacek Wilczak, Steve Nissen

β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) stimulates myogenic cell proliferation, differentiation and survival via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, Volume 1793, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 755-763. Reut Kornasio, Ingo Riederer, Gillian Butler-Browne, Vincent Mouly, Zehava Uni, Orna Halevy.

Effect of leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology. Volume 81, Issue 5, November 1996, Pages 2095-2104. Nissen, S., Sharp, R., Ray, M., Rathmacher, J.A., Rice, D., Fuller Jr., J.C., Connelly, A.S., Abumrad, N.

DHA

DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) is a naturally occurring omega 3 fatty acid commonly found in fish oil. While the human body is incapable of making DHA, it is vital to health, particularly to brain and neuron function, as 50% of the weight of the neuronal plasma membrane is made of DHA. DHA deficiency is associated with cognitive decline, increased neural cell death and depression.

DHA is also important to general cellular health. It is literally a building block of cell membranes and influences cellular elasticity, ion permeability (and therefore cellular ‘charge’) and membrane organization of cells. It also functions as an anti-inflammatory agent, and recent research has shown that DHA supplementation combined with exercise elevates the capacity of the adult brain for axonal growth, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function.

Selected Studies:

Essential Fatty Acids, DHA and the Human Brain. Indian J Pediatr 2005; 72 (3): 239-242. Meharban Singh.

N-3 Fatty acids and the inflammatory response – biological background. Eur Heart J Supplements 2001; 3 (Suppl D): D42-D49. De Caterina, R and Basta, G

Effects of docosahexaenoic acid-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation on cytokine release from blood mononuclear leukocytes: the OmegAD study. Am J Clin Nutr 87 (6): 1616–1622. Vedin I, et al. (1 June 2008).

Selective deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of patients with major depressive disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 62 (1): 17–24. McNamara RK, Hahn CG, Jandacek R, et al. (2007).

Comparative effects of DHA and EPA on cell function. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 122, Issue 1, April 2009, Pages 56-64. Renata Gorjão, Anna Karenina Azevedo-Martins, Hosana Gomes Rodrigues, Fernando Abdulkader, Manoel Arcisio-Miranda, Joaquim Procopio, Rui Curi.

Exercise contributes to the effects of DHA dietary supplementation by acting on membrane-related synaptic systems. Brain Research, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 13 May 2009. Gabriela Chytrova, Zhe Ying, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla

DMAE

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is an organic compound found in certain fish, and it produces choline in the brain. Adequate choline is an important part of cellular health, as it is essential in the formation of cell membranes. DMAE is currently used to treat ADD and ADHD, and there is a hypothesis that DMAE helps retard aging by protecting cell membrane and structure, and that it may have anti-cancer properties, though studies are not conclusive.

Selected Studies:

Lysosomes, membranes and aging. Exp. Gerontol., 6(1971) 153--166. R. Hochschild.

A membrane hypothesis of aging. J. Theor. Biol. 75 (1978) 189--195. I. Zs.-Nagy.

The role of membrane structure and function in cellular aging: a review. Mech. Ageing Dev. 9 (1979) 237--246. I. Zs.-Nagy.

Effects of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (Deanol) on the metabolism of choline in plasma. J. Neurochem., 30 (1978) 1293--1296. G. Ceder, L. Dahlberg and J. Schuberth.

Electron spin resonance spectroscopic demonstration of the hydrdoxyl free radical scavenger properties of dimethylarninoethanol in spin trapping experiments confirming the molecular basis for the biological effects of centrophenoxine. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr., 3 (1984) 297--310. I. Zs.-Nagy and R.A. Floyd.

Effect of dimethylaminoethyl-p-chlorophenoxyacetate on the life span of male Swiss-Webster albino mice. Exp. Gerontol., 8 (1973) 177--183. R. Hochschild.

Glisodin

Glisodin is a patented 100% vegetable source of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). SOD is a super anti-oxidant produced within our cells to protect them from free radicals. As we age, our SOD levels go down. Glisodin increases your body’s production of SOD, stimulating the defense against free radicals, boosting your immune system and helping to protect your skin from sun damage. Glisodin may also prevent stress-induced impairment of cognitive function, allowing you to think clearly under pressure.

Selected Studies:

Superoxide dismutase: correlation with life-span and specific metabolic rate in primate species. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 77, 2777 – 2781. Tolmasoff, J.M., Ono, T., Cutlur, R.G., 1984.

Oral supplementation with melon superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defences in the brain and prevents stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. Behavioural Brain Research, Volume 200, Issue 1, 8 June 2009, Pages 15-21. Sanae Nakajima, Ikuroh Ohsawa, Kazufumi Nagata, Shigeo Ohta, Makoto Ohno, Tetsuo Ijichi, Toshio Mikami.

Enhanced expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase leads to prolonged in vivo cell cycle progression and up-regulation of mitochondrial thioredoxin.Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 48, Issue 11, 1 June 2010, Pages 1501-1512 Aekyong Kim, Suman Joseph, Aslam Khan, Charles J. Epstein, Raymond Sobel, Ting-Ting Huang.

Age- and peroxidative stress-related modifications of the cerebral enzymatic activities linked to mitochondria and the glutathione system. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 1, July 1995, Pages 77-101. Gianni Benzi, Antonio Moretti.

Oxidative stress and antioxidants: how to assess a risk or a prevention? Theoretical consideration and application to SOD-Gliadin.”Laboratory of Fundamental and Applied Bioenergetics.INSERM U884 and University Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble , France. Leverve, X.

Glisodin and Exposure to the Sun. An open study conducted in France on 150 patients by 40 dermatologists following a protocol compiled by Catherine Laverdet, M.D., Nadine Pomarede, M.D. and Catherine Oliveres-Ghouti, M.D. Sponsored by ISOCELL Nutra, France. (March 2005).

Proanthodyn

Proanthodyn is extracted from grape seeds, and has been shown to protect blood capillaries and heart function, as well as being an anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent. It is thought to promote health aging and healthy cellular function.

Selected Studies:

Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutat Res 2003;523-524:87-97. Bagchi D, Sen CK, Ray SD, Das DK, Bagchi M, Preuss HG, et al.

Procyanidins as antioxidants and tumor cell growth modulators. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:2392-7. Faria A, Calhau C, de Freitas V, Mateus N.

Antiproliferative effect of antioxidant polyphenols from grape in murine Hepa-1c1c7. Eur J Nutr 2003;42:43-9. Matito C, Mastorakou F, Centelles JJ, Torres JL, Cascante M.

Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by grape seed proanthocyanidin is accompanied by a decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis. Nutr Cancer 2004; 49:81-8. Nomoto H, Iigo M, Hamada H, Kojima S, Tsuda H.

Resveratrol: preventing properties against vascular alterations and ageing. Mol Nutr Food Res 2005;49: 377-95. Delmas D, Jannin B, Latruffe N.

Concentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:252-62. Castilla P, Echarri R, Davalos A, Cerrato F, Ortega H, Teruel JL, et al.

Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds. Ann NY Acad Sci.957:260-70. Bagchi D et al. 2002 May.

Stevia Extract:

Stevia is a plant native to parts of North and South America and has been used traditionally as a sweetener and medicine for thousands of years. Though up to 300 times sweeter than sugar, stevia doesn’t raise your blood sugar and even enhances glucose tolerance, making it suitable for diabetics. It’s also easier on your teeth – it has been shown to fight cavity-causing bacteria in the mouth.

Recent studies have found stevia potentially beneficial for treating obesity and high blood pressure/hypertension, and it has been shown to have a positive effect on the immune system and promote a healthy inflammatory response. It has also been shown to inhibit the growth of at least 3 different types of human cancer cells, and is being investigated as a possible treatment for metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes.

Selected Studies:

Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Appetite. 2010 Mar 18. Anton SD, Martin CK, Han H, Coulon S, Cefalu WT, Geiselman P, Williamson DA.

Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni extract supplementation improves lipid and carnitine profiles in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. J Sci Food Agric. 2010 May;90(7):1099-105. Park JE, Cha YS.

Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat. Physiol Behav. 2009 Dec 7;98(5):618-24. Epub 2009 Oct 6. Figlewicz DP, Ioannou G, Bennett Jay J, Kittleson S, Savard C, Roth CL.

Immune up regulatory response of a non-caloric natural sweetener, stevioside. Chem Biol Interact. 2008 May 28;173(2):115-21. Epub 2008 Jan 31. Sehar I, Kaul A, Bani S, Pal HC, Saxena AK.

Structural analysis of isosteviol and related compounds as DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase inhibitors. Life Sci 77(17), 2127−2140. Mizushina, Y., Akihisa, T., Ukiya, M., Hamasaki, Y., Murakami-Nakai, C., Kuriyama, I., et al. (2005).

Stevioside and related compounds: therapeutic benefits beyond sweetness. Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jan;121(1):41-54. Epub 2008 Oct 27. Review. Chatsudthipong V, Muanprasat C.

Investigation of the antihypertensive effect of oral crude stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension. Phytother Res. 2006 Sep;20(9):732-6. Ferri LA, Alves-Do-Prado W, Yamada SS, Gazola S, Batista MR, Bazotte RB.


GSH Ignite ingredients and selected studies

Whey Protein

Our highest quality un-denatured whey protein, derived from hormone-free dairy, is more than just a nutritional protein. It also acts as a cysteine donor to increase intracellular glutathione production, protecting and energizing cells as well as boosting the immune system. Undenatured whey protein has been shown to significantly enhance muscular performance, including peak power and work capacity (strength). It promotes a natural anabolic state in the body, the formation of lean muscle mass, and may also enhance endurance by fighting against oxidative stress, which causes muscle fatigue.

1. Effect of supplementation with a cysteine donor on muscular performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 87, 1381–1385. Lands, L. C., Grey, V. L. & Smountas, A. A. 1999

2. The biological activity of undenatured dietary whey proteins: role of glutathione. Clin. Invest. Med. 14: 296 – 309, 1991. Bounous, G., and P. Gold.

3. Oxidants and antioxidants in exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 675 – 686, 1995. Sen, C. K.

4. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: glutathione supplementation and deficiency. J. Appl. Physiol. 77: 2177 – 2187, 1994. Sen, C. K., M. Atalay, and O. Hanninen.

5. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass. Nutr J. 2008 Aug 27;7:23. Treyzon, L et al.

6. Protein nutrition, exercise and aging. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):601S-609S. Evans WJ.

7. Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):134S-139S. Phillips SM, Hartman JW, Wilkinson SB.

8. Cellular Mechanisms of Resistance to Chronic Oxidative Stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1998 June; 24 (9): 1375-1389. Yutaka Sagara, et al.

9. Glutathione S-transferase π localizes in mitochondria and protects against oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2009 May; 46 (10):1392-1403. Shinji Goto et al.

Organic Cocoa

Our organic cocoa powder is ground from the seeds of the cacao tree. Scientific research has found cocoa to be an effective antioxidant, as well as providing neurotransmitters that increase mental alertness, focus, and happiness.

In addition, several compounds found in cocoa promote healthy heart function and help degrade atherosclerotic plaque that can build up in arteries and deprive organs and tissues of essential blood if left untreated. Finally, the arginine present in cocoa, which is the precursor for nitric oxide, helps accelerates recovery time and decrease blood pressure.

Selected Studies:

Enzymatic function of nitric oxide synthases. Cardiovascular Research43 (3): 521–531 REVIEW. Andrew, P.J.; Myer, B. (August 15 1999).

L-Arginine and hypertension. Journal of Nutrition134 (10 Suppl): 2807S-2811S REVIEW. Gokce, N.. (October 2004).

Exogenous L-arginine ameliorates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and renal damage in rats. Hypertension52 (6): 1084–1090. Rajapakse, N.W.; et al. (December 2008).

Arginine supplementation and wound healing. Nutrition in Clinical Practice20 (13): 52–61 REVIEW. Stechmiller, J.K.; et al. (February 2005).

Arginine physiology and its implication for wound healing. Wound Repair and Regeneration11 (6): 419–423 REVIEW. Witte, M.B.; Barbul, A (Nov-Dec 2003).

Heart-healthy Compound In Chocolate Identified. ScienceDaily. University of California - Davis (2006, January 20).

Goji Berry

Small red berries from a plant native to southeastern Europe and Asia, goji berries are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and are a popular ingredient in Chinese tonic soups, where they are thought to improve circulation, fertility and sexual function.

Scientific research has found goji berries to contain an extensive list of beneficial compounds and essential nutrients, including 18 amino acids, 6 essential vitamins, 5 caretenoids, and 2 essential fatty acids. They have also been shown to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties, and help to protect neurons and boost immunity.

Selected Studies:

Antioxidant activities of some common ingredients of traditional chinese medicine, Angelica sinensis, Lycium barbarum and Poria cocos. Phytother Res 18 (12): 1008–12. Wu SJ, Ng LT, Lin CC (December 2004).

Fasting plasma zeaxanthin response to Fructus barbarum L. (wolfberry; Kei Tze) in a food-based human supplementation trial. Br. J. Nutr. 93 (1): 123–30. Cheng CY, Chung WY, Szeto YT, Benzie IF (January 2005).

Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine Lycium barbarum against beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. Exp. Gerontol. 40 (8-9): 716–27. Yu MS, Leung SK, Lai SW, et al. (2005).

Immunomodulation and antitumor activity by a polysaccharide-protein complex from Lycium barbarum. Int. Immunopharmacol. 4 (4): 563–9. Gan L, Hua Zhang S, Liang Yang X, Bi Xu H (April 2004).

Effect of the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on age-related oxidative stress in aged mice. J Ethnopharmacol 111 (3): 504–11. Li XM, Ma YL, Liu XJ (May 2007).

Recent development of antitumor agents from Chinese herbal medicines. Part II. High molecular compounds. Planta Med. 69 (3): 193–201. Tang W, Hemm I, Bertram B (March 2003).

Coconut oil

Naturally derived from the coconut, coconut oil is a proven antioxidant. It contains significant quantities of monolauric acid – also found in human breast milk – which boosts immunity against microbial infections and viruses.

The majority of the fats provided by coconut oil are medium chain triglycerides, which are easily digested, absorbed and utilized by the body, proving an especially beneficial energy source to athletes. They have been shown to posses thermogenic (fat burning) properties, and may enhance endurance in athletes, though the studies are not conclusive.

Selected Studies:

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids 44 (7): 593–601. Assunção, ML (July 2009).

Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats Food Chemistry, Volume 99, Issue 2, 2006, Pages 260-266. K.G. Nevin, T. Rajamohan.

Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36, 950 –962. Bach, A.C. and Babayan, V.K. (1982).

Thermogenesis in man during overfeeding with medium chain triglycerides. Metabolism 38, 641– 648. Hill, J.O., Peters, J.C., Yang, D., Sharp, T., Kaler, M., Abumarad, N.N., and Greene, H.L. (1989).

The role of medium-chain triglycerides in exercise. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 6, 121–133. Berning, J.R. (1996).

Effects of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO and endurance in runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26, 81– 88. Muoio, D.H., Leddy, J.J., Horvath, P.J., Awad, A.B., and Pendergast, D.R. (1992).

Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 287–293. Lambert, E.V., Speechly, D.P., Dennis, S.C., and Noakes, T.D. (1994).

Turmeric

Turmeric is a medicine and spice made from the root of the turmeric plant, native to tropical South Asia. It has been used for centuries in South Asian cooking and Ayurvedic medicine, where it is believed to have beneficial antiseptic, antibacterial and digestive properties and is used as a blood purifier, amongst other applications.

Scientific research has shown it to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, as well as the ability to selectively kill a wide range of tumor cells. Turmeric has been shown to increase glutathione and SOD levels significantly in heart and liver tissues depleted by inflammation. Turmeric is also currently being investigated as a treatment for Alzheimer’s.

Selected Studies:

Role of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 43, Issue 4, 15 August 2007, Pages 568-580. Santosh K. Sandur, Haruyo Ichikawa, Manoj K. Pandey, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Bokyung Sung, Gautam Sethi, Bharat B. Aggarwal

Curcumin induces the degradation of cyclin E expression through ubiquitin-dependent pathway and up-regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 in multiple human tumor cell lines. Biochemical Pharmacology, Volume 73, Issue 7, 1 April 2007, Pages 1024-1032. Bharat B. Aggarwal, Sanjeev Banerjee, Uddalak Bharadwaj, Bokyung Sung, Shishir Shishodia, Gautam Sethi

Immunomodulatory effects of curcumin: In-vivo. International Immunopharmacology, Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2008, Pages 688-700. Ch. Varalakshmi, A. Mubarak Ali, B.V.V. Pardhasaradhi, Raghvendra M. Srivastava, Sarvjeet Singh, Ashok Khar

Role of phenolic O-H and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1 September 2003, Pages 475-484. K. Indira Priyadarsini, Dilip K. Maity, G. H. Naik, M. Sudheer Kumar, M. K. Unnikrishnan, J. G. Satav, Hari Moha

Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: Evidence of its antioxidant property. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 3 April 2010. Suresh R Naik, Vishnu N Thakare, Snehal R Patil

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)

CLA is a naturally occurring component of the fats found in meat and dairy products and is an antioxidant. It has been shown to help reduce body fat and increase lean muscle mass. It has also been shown to help fight inflammation, reduce risk for cardiovascular disease, and also possesses anti-cancer properties.

Selected Studies:

Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1203-11. Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA.

Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. Journal of Nutrition 130 (12): 2943–2948. Blankson H, Stakkestad JA, Fagertun H, Thom E, Wadstein J, Gudmundsen O. (1 December 2000).

Inhibition of carcinogenesis by conjugated linoleic acid: potential mechanisms of action. J Nutr. 2002 Oct;132(10):2995-8. Belury MA.

Inflammation and conjugated linoleic acid: mechanisms of action and implications for human health. J. Physiol. Biochem. 61 (3): 483–94. Zulet MA, Marti A, Parra MD, Martínez JA (September 2005).

Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and cancer. J Nutr. 2007 Dec;137(12):2599-607. Kelley NS, Hubbard NE, Erickson KL.

Conjugated linoleic acid. A powerful anticarcinogen from animal fat sources. Cancer 233 (3): 1050–4. Ip C, Scimeca JA, Thompson HJ. (1994).

Luo Han Guo

Luo Han Guo is a fruit native to southern China and is used as a low calorie sweetener and medicine. It is also known as the longevity fruit, and is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to help treat chronic lung ailments and increase lifespan, amongst other things. Scientific research suggests that it is an antioxidant and may help prevent cancer. It may also prove effective in helping to treat diabetes and obesity.

Selected Studies:

Antioxidant property of fructus momordicae extract. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 1996; 40 (6): 1111-1121. Shi H, et al.

Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds. Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1309-1316. Konoshima T and Takasaki M.

Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Supplement 1997; 27: 59-67. Katiyar SK and Mukhtar H.

Trimethylglycine (TMG):

TMG, also known as betaine, is an organic compound found in food such as beets, quinoa and spinach, and is essential for human well being. TMG helps to stabilize protein and prevent it from breaking down, playing an anabolic role in the body. It also serves as a methyl donor, working to normalize the efficiency of methylation/sulfation pathways, and is required for mitochondrial protein and nucleic acid synthesis. It maintains cellular replication, liver function and helps detoxify cells from certain substances. TMG is critical to protect cells from hyperosmotic stress, and assists in cell volume regulation.

While TMG supplementation has been proven to increase lean muscle mass and decrease body fat in livestock and is widely used in the industry, few studies have been done on humans. More comprehensive studies are necessary, though a ‘highly significant’ negative association between TMG levels in the blood and obesity has already been established (the higher your percentage of body fat, the lower your plasma TMG concentration).

Select Studies:

The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Clinical Biochemistry, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 March 2010. Michael Lever, Sandy Slow.

N-trimethylglycine (betaine) transport is critical to protect HEPG2 cells from hyperosmotic stress. Gastroenterology, Volume 108, Issue 4, Supplement 3, April 1995, Page A1040. JC Bucuvalas, JA Bezerra, C. Schmidt, CE Burnham.

Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women. J Nutr 2008;138:914–20. Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Nygård O, Bleie Ø, Ueland PM.

Betaine Supplementation and Blood Lipids: Fact or Artifact? Nutr Rev 2006;64:77–9. Szegedi SS, Castro CC, Koutmos M, Garrow TA. Betaine-homocysteine S-Zeisel SH.

Methyl donor supplementation prevents transgenerational amplification of obesity. Int J Obesity 2008;32:1373–9. Waterland RA, Travisano M, Tahiliani KG, Rached MT, Mirza S.

Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenic enzyme activities and fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in nishing pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2008;140:36575. Huang QC, Xu ZR, Han XY, Han XY, Li WF.

Organic Cordyceps:

Cordyceps is a species of mushroom that has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Tibetan Medicine, and is renowned for its immune enhancing and energetic properties. It came to the attention of the West when 3 Chinese runners taking cordyceps broke 5 world records at the 1993 National Games in Beijing.

Scientific research has found it to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immune boosting properties. It is also believed to provide the body with increased energy by enhancing myocardial ATP generation and mitochondrial electron transport.

Selected Studies:

Free radical scavenging and apoptotic effects of Cordycepssinensis fractionated by supercritical carbon dioxide. FoodChemToxicol. 2005 Apr;43(4):543-52. Wang BJ, et al.

Effects of Cordycepsmilitarisextract on angiogenesis and tumorgrowth. ActaPharmacol Sin. 2004 May;25(5):657-65. Yoo HS, et al.

Anti-tumour and immuno-stimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces japonica, a new type of Cordyceps spp. Phytother Res. 2003 Aug;17(7):
830-3. Shin KH, et al.

Antioxidant activity of the extracts from fruiting bodies of cultured Cordycepssinensis. Phytother Res. 2000 Dec;14(8):647-9. Yamaguchi Y, et al.

Methanol extract of Cordycepspruinosa inhibits in vitro and in vivo inflammatory mediators by suppressing NF-kappaB activation. ToxicolApplPharmacol. 2003 Jul 1;190(1):1-8. Kim KM.

A characteristic pharmacological action of 'Yang-invigorating' Chinese tonifying herbs: enhancement of myocardial ATP-generation capacity. Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov;13(9-10):636-42. Epub 2006 May 2. Ko KM, Leon TY, Mak DH, Chiu PY, Du Y, Poon MK.

Pharmacological basis of 'Yin-nourishing' and 'Yang-invigorating' actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb. Life Sci. 2004 Dec 10;76(4):385-95. Siu KM, Mak DH, Chiu PY, Poon MK, Du Y, Ko KM.

Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa is a plant used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine as, amongst other things, a memory enhancer, anti-inflammatory agent, nerve tonic and heart tonic. Scientific research has bolstered these findings, deeming it an antioxidant, neuroprotectant, anti-inflammatory, adaptogen (protects against stress) and cognitive enhancer.

Selected Studies:

Cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Bacopa monnieri in Alzheimer's disease model. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 127, Issue 1, 8 January 2010, Pages 26-31. Nongnut Uabundit, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Supaporn Mucimapura, Kornkanok Ingkaninan

Anti-inflammatory activity of Bacopa monniera in rodents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 104, Issues 1-2, 8 March 2006, Pages 286-289 Shabana Channa, Ahsana Dar, Shazia Anjum, Muhammad Yaqoob, Atta-ur-Rahman

Neuroprotective efficacy of Bacopa monnieri against rotenone induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. NeuroToxicology, Volume 30, Issue 6, November 2009, Pages 977-985. Ravikumar Hosamani, Muralidhara

Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview. Phytomedicine, Volume 12, Issue 4, 20 April 2005, Pages 305-317. A. Russo, F. Borrelli

N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC)

NAC is a precursor to the amino acid L-cysteine and to reduced glutathione (GSH). NAC counteracts oxidative stress and replenishes glutathione levels, as well as supports healthy heart function. It is also an anti-inflammatory agent, and may help athletes speed recovery by supporting skeletal muscle microcirculation. It has also been shown to reduce exercise-induced diaphragm and respiratory fatigue, a key limiting factor in physical performance.

In several clinical trials, cysteine supplementation improved skeletal muscle functions, including strength, decreased the body fat/lean body mass ratio, improved immune functions, and increased plasma albumin levels (which helps maintain muscle mass and promotes a natural anabolic state in the body, amongst other functions). Scientific research has found that the dietary consumption of cysteine is generally insufficient, and that virtually everyone is likely to have a cysteine deficiency sooner or later.

Selected Studies:

Effects of N-acetylcysteine on respiratory muscle fatigue during heavy exercise. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 165, Issue 1, 1 January 2009, Pages 67-72. Megan K. Kelly, Reneé J. Wicker, Thomas J. Barstow, Craig A. Harms.

N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 94: 2468 – 2474, 1994. Reid, M. B., D. S. Stokic, S. M. Koch, F. A. Khawli, and A. A. Leis.

Effect of N-acetylcysteine on diaphragm fatigue. J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 2107 – 2113, 1990. Shindoh, C., A. DiMarco, A. Thomas, P. Manubay, and G. Supinski.

Antioxidant effects of stereoisomers of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), L-NAC and D-NAC, on angiotensin II-stimulated MAP kinase activation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Aug;95(4):483-6. Epub 2004 Aug 5. Kyaw M, Yoshizumi M, Tsuchiya K, Izawa Y, Kanematsu Y, Fujita Y, Ali N, Ishizawa K, Yamauchi A, Tamaki T.

The antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine: Its reaction with hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 6, 1989, Pages 593-597. Okezie I. Aruoma, Barry Halliwell, Brigid M. Hoey, John Butle.

Acute effects of N-acetylcysteine on skeletal muscle microcirculation following closed soft tissue trauma in rats. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Volume 23, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages 231-241. Klaus-D. Schaser, Herman J. Bail, Lioba Schewior, John F. Stover, Ingo Melcher, Norbert P. Haas, Thomas Mittlmeier.

Royal Jelly

Royal jelly is a food made by workers bees but consumed only by the queen bee. While the queen and the workers possess the same genes and anatomy, on a diet of royal jelly the queen grows one and a half times larger than the workers and lives up to 40 times longer. Royal jelly has been found to possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and immune boosting properties, amongst others.

Selected Studies:

Trace and mineral elements in royal jelly and homeostatic effects. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 19, Issues 2-3, 2 December 2005, Pages 183-189. Andreas Stocker, Peter Schramel, Antonius Kettrup, Eberhard Bengsch

Analysis of anti-allergic function of royal jelly. Natural Med. 55, 174 – 180. Kataoka, M., Arai, N., Taniguchi, Y., Kohno, K., Iwaki, K., Ikeda, M., Kurimoto, M., 2001.

The antioxidant properties of Royal jelly. Jpn. Pharmacol. Ther. 24, 1463 – 1471. Kuwahara, Y., Hori, Y., Yoneta, T., Ikeda, Y., 1996. [in Japanese].

Antiutumor effect of royal jelly. Folia Pharmacol. Japon 89, 73 – 80. Tamura, T., Fujii, A., Kumoyama, N., 1987. [in Japanese].

Royal Jelly prolongs the life span of C3H/HeJ mice: correlation with reduced DNA damage. Experimental Gerontology, Volume 38, Issue 9, 1 September 2003, Pages 965-969. Shin-ichiro Inoue, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Shimpei Ushio, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto.

Screening of biological activities present in honeybee (Apis mellifera) royal jelly Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 19, Issue 5, August 2005, Pages 645-651. L.A. Salazar-Olivo, V. Paz-González

Major royal jelly protein 3 modulates immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Life Sciences, Volume 73, Issue 16, 5 September 2003, Pages 2029-2045. Iwao Okamoto, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Toshio Kunikata, Keizo Kohno, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto

Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB)

HMB is a natural acid made in the human body that comes from the essential amino acid leucine (it is a metabolite of leucine). It has a protein anabolic effect and is good for increasing lean muscle mass and increasing muscle strength during exercise. HMB has been shown to prevent exercise-induced protein degradation and muscle damage. It has also been shown to promote muscle cell proliferation, cell differentiation and fusion, and enhance muscle cell survival.

Selected Studies:

Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein metabolism in whole body and in selected tissues. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 47, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 255-259. M. Holecek, T. Muthny, M. Kovarik, L. Sispera

Creatine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition, Volume 17, Issues 7-8, July-August 2001, Pages 558-566. Ewa Jówko, Piotr Ostaszewski, Michal Jank, Jaroslaw Sacharuk, Agnieszka Zieniewicz, Jacek Wilczak, Steve Nissen

β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) stimulates myogenic cell proliferation, differentiation and survival via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, Volume 1793, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 755-763. Reut Kornasio, Ingo Riederer, Gillian Butler-Browne, Vincent Mouly, Zehava Uni, Orna Halevy.

Effect of leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology. Volume 81, Issue 5, November 1996, Pages 2095-2104. Nissen, S., Sharp, R., Ray, M., Rathmacher, J.A., Rice, D., Fuller Jr., J.C., Connelly, A.S., Abumrad, N.

DHA

DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) is a naturally occurring omega 3 fatty acid commonly found in fish oil. While the human body is incapable of making DHA, it is vital to health, particularly to brain and neuron function, as 50% of the weight of the neuronal plasma membrane is made of DHA. DHA deficiency is associated with cognitive decline, increased neural cell death and depression.

DHA is also important to general cellular health. It is literally a building block of cell membranes and influences cellular elasticity, ion permeability (and therefore cellular ‘charge’) and membrane organization of cells. It also functions as an anti-inflammatory agent, and recent research has shown that DHA supplementation combined with exercise elevates the capacity of the adult brain for axonal growth, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function.

Selected Studies:

Essential Fatty Acids, DHA and the Human Brain. Indian J Pediatr 2005; 72 (3): 239-242. Meharban Singh.

N-3 Fatty acids and the inflammatory response – biological background. Eur Heart J Supplements 2001; 3 (Suppl D): D42-D49. De Caterina, R and Basta, G

Effects of docosahexaenoic acid-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation on cytokine release from blood mononuclear leukocytes: the OmegAD study. Am J Clin Nutr 87 (6): 1616–1622. Vedin I, et al. (1 June 2008).

Selective deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of patients with major depressive disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 62 (1): 17–24. McNamara RK, Hahn CG, Jandacek R, et al. (2007).

Comparative effects of DHA and EPA on cell function. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 122, Issue 1, April 2009, Pages 56-64. Renata Gorjão, Anna Karenina Azevedo-Martins, Hosana Gomes Rodrigues, Fernando Abdulkader, Manoel Arcisio-Miranda, Joaquim Procopio, Rui Curi.

Exercise contributes to the effects of DHA dietary supplementation by acting on membrane-related synaptic systems. Brain Research, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 13 May 2009. Gabriela Chytrova, Zhe Ying, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla

DMAE

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is an organic compound found in certain fish, and it produces choline in the brain. Adequate choline is an important part of cellular health, as it is essential in the formation of cell membranes. DMAE is currently used to treat ADD and ADHD, and there is a hypothesis that DMAE helps retard aging by protecting cell membrane and structure, and that it may have anti-cancer properties, though studies are not conclusive.

Selected Studies:

Lysosomes, membranes and aging. Exp. Gerontol., 6(1971) 153--166. R. Hochschild.

A membrane hypothesis of aging. J. Theor. Biol. 75 (1978) 189--195. I. Zs.-Nagy.

The role of membrane structure and function in cellular aging: a review. Mech. Ageing Dev. 9 (1979) 237--246. I. Zs.-Nagy.

Effects of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (Deanol) on the metabolism of choline in plasma. J. Neurochem., 30 (1978) 1293--1296. G. Ceder, L. Dahlberg and J. Schuberth.

Electron spin resonance spectroscopic demonstration of the hydrdoxyl free radical scavenger properties of dimethylarninoethanol in spin trapping experiments confirming the molecular basis for the biological effects of centrophenoxine. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr., 3 (1984) 297--310. I. Zs.-Nagy and R.A. Floyd.

Effect of dimethylaminoethyl-p-chlorophenoxyacetate on the life span of male Swiss-Webster albino mice. Exp. Gerontol., 8 (1973) 177--183. R. Hochschild.

Glisodin

Glisodin is a patented 100% vegetable source of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). SOD is a super anti-oxidant produced within our cells to protect them from free radicals. As we age, our SOD levels go down. Glisodin increases your body’s production of SOD, stimulating the defense against free radicals, boosting your immune system and helping to protect your skin from sun damage. Glisodin may also prevent stress-induced impairment of cognitive function, allowing you to think clearly under pressure.

Selected Studies:

Superoxide dismutase: correlation with life-span and specific metabolic rate in primate species. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 77, 2777 – 2781. Tolmasoff, J.M., Ono, T., Cutlur, R.G., 1984.

Oral supplementation with melon superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defences in the brain and prevents stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. Behavioural Brain Research, Volume 200, Issue 1, 8 June 2009, Pages 15-21. Sanae Nakajima, Ikuroh Ohsawa, Kazufumi Nagata, Shigeo Ohta, Makoto Ohno, Tetsuo Ijichi, Toshio Mikami.

Enhanced expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase leads to prolonged in vivo cell cycle progression and up-regulation of mitochondrial thioredoxin.Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 48, Issue 11, 1 June 2010, Pages 1501-1512 Aekyong Kim, Suman Joseph, Aslam Khan, Charles J. Epstein, Raymond Sobel, Ting-Ting Huang.

Age- and peroxidative stress-related modifications of the cerebral enzymatic activities linked to mitochondria and the glutathione system. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 1, July 1995, Pages 77-101. Gianni Benzi, Antonio Moretti.

Oxidative stress and antioxidants: how to assess a risk or a prevention? Theoretical consideration and application to SOD-Gliadin.”Laboratory of Fundamental and Applied Bioenergetics.INSERM U884 and University Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble , France. Leverve, X.

Glisodin and Exposure to the Sun. An open study conducted in France on 150 patients by 40 dermatologists following a protocol compiled by Catherine Laverdet, M.D., Nadine Pomarede, M.D. and Catherine Oliveres-Ghouti, M.D. Sponsored by ISOCELL Nutra, France. (March 2005).

Proanthodyn

Proanthodyn is extracted from grape seeds, and has been shown to protect blood capillaries and heart function, as well as being an anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent. It is thought to promote health aging and healthy cellular function.

Selected Studies:

Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutat Res 2003;523-524:87-97. Bagchi D, Sen CK, Ray SD, Das DK, Bagchi M, Preuss HG, et al.

Procyanidins as antioxidants and tumor cell growth modulators. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:2392-7. Faria A, Calhau C, de Freitas V, Mateus N.

Antiproliferative effect of antioxidant polyphenols from grape in murine Hepa-1c1c7. Eur J Nutr 2003;42:43-9. Matito C, Mastorakou F, Centelles JJ, Torres JL, Cascante M.

Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by grape seed proanthocyanidin is accompanied by a decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis. Nutr Cancer 2004; 49:81-8. Nomoto H, Iigo M, Hamada H, Kojima S, Tsuda H.

Resveratrol: preventing properties against vascular alterations and ageing. Mol Nutr Food Res 2005;49: 377-95. Delmas D, Jannin B, Latruffe N.

Concentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:252-62. Castilla P, Echarri R, Davalos A, Cerrato F, Ortega H, Teruel JL, et al.

Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds. Ann NY Acad Sci.957:260-70. Bagchi D et al. 2002 May.

Stevia Extract:

Stevia is a plant native to parts of North and South America and has been used traditionally as a sweetener and medicine for thousands of years. Though up to 300 times sweeter than sugar, stevia doesn’t raise your blood sugar and even enhances glucose tolerance, making it suitable for diabetics. It’s also easier on your teeth – it has been shown to fight cavity-causing bacteria in the mouth.

Recent studies have found stevia potentially beneficial for treating obesity and high blood pressure/hypertension, and it has been shown to have a positive effect on the immune system and promote a healthy inflammatory response. It has also been shown to inhibit the growth of at least 3 different types of human cancer cells, and is being investigated as a possible treatment for metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes.

Selected Studies:

Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Appetite. 2010 Mar 18. Anton SD, Martin CK, Han H, Coulon S, Cefalu WT, Geiselman P, Williamson DA.

Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni extract supplementation improves lipid and carnitine profiles in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. J Sci Food Agric. 2010 May;90(7):1099-105. Park JE, Cha YS.

Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat. Physiol Behav. 2009 Dec 7;98(5):618-24. Epub 2009 Oct 6. Figlewicz DP, Ioannou G, Bennett Jay J, Kittleson S, Savard C, Roth CL.

Immune up regulatory response of a non-caloric natural sweetener, stevioside. Chem Biol Interact. 2008 May 28;173(2):115-21. Epub 2008 Jan 31. Sehar I, Kaul A, Bani S, Pal HC, Saxena AK.

Structural analysis of isosteviol and related compounds as DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase inhibitors. Life Sci 77(17), 2127−2140. Mizushina, Y., Akihisa, T., Ukiya, M., Hamasaki, Y., Murakami-Nakai, C., Kuriyama, I., et al. (2005).

Stevioside and related compounds: therapeutic benefits beyond sweetness. Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jan;121(1):41-54. Epub 2008 Oct 27. Review. Chatsudthipong V, Muanprasat C.

Investigation of the antihypertensive effect of oral crude stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension. Phytother Res. 2006 Sep;20(9):732-6. Ferri LA, Alves-Do-Prado W, Yamada SS, Gazola S, Batista MR, Bazotte RB.


GSH Ignite ingredients and selected studies

Whey Protein

Our highest quality un-denatured whey protein, derived from hormone-free dairy, is more than just a nutritional protein. It also acts as a cysteine donor to increase intracellular glutathione production, protecting and energizing cells as well as boosting the immune system. Undenatured whey protein has been shown to significantly enhance muscular performance, including peak power and work capacity (strength). It promotes a natural anabolic state in the body, the formation of lean muscle mass, and may also enhance endurance by fighting against oxidative stress, which causes muscle fatigue.

1. Effect of supplementation with a cysteine donor on muscular performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 87, 1381–1385. Lands, L. C., Grey, V. L. & Smountas, A. A. 1999

2. The biological activity of undenatured dietary whey proteins: role of glutathione. Clin. Invest. Med. 14: 296 – 309, 1991. Bounous, G., and P. Gold.

3. Oxidants and antioxidants in exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 675 – 686, 1995. Sen, C. K.

4. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: glutathione supplementation and deficiency. J. Appl. Physiol. 77: 2177 – 2187, 1994. Sen, C. K., M. Atalay, and O. Hanninen.

5. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass. Nutr J. 2008 Aug 27;7:23. Treyzon, L et al.

6. Protein nutrition, exercise and aging. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):601S-609S. Evans WJ.

7. Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):134S-139S. Phillips SM, Hartman JW, Wilkinson SB.

8. Cellular Mechanisms of Resistance to Chronic Oxidative Stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1998 June; 24 (9): 1375-1389. Yutaka Sagara, et al.

9. Glutathione S-transferase π localizes in mitochondria and protects against oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2009 May; 46 (10):1392-1403. Shinji Goto et al.

Natural Vanilla Extract and Essence:

Vanilla extract is a liquid form of vanilla spice concentrate derived from a fruit-bearing orchid. For centuries, vanilla was used as a topical remedy to treat wounds, heal snakebites, and prevent nausea.

Nearly 200 compounds make up vanilla’s distinct flavor, and many of those compounds have antioxidant and cancer-fighting properties. Studies have also shown vanilla to help reduce anxiety, improve skin tone, and boost metabolism, which may stimulate weight loss.

Sinha, Ak, Sharma, UK., & Sharma, N. (2008). A comprehensive review on vanilla flavor: extraction, isolation and quantification of vanillin and others constituents. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 59(4), 299-326.

Shyamala, BN, Naidu, MM, Sulochanamma, G, & Srinivas, P. (2007). Studies on the antioxidant activities of natural vanilla extract and its constituent compounds through in vitro models. I Agric Food Chem., 55(19), 7738-43.

Ecklonia Cava

Naturally derived from a species of brown algae found off the coast of Korea, ecklonia cava is a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, serving to scavenge free radicals, chelate metals and donate electrons. It is a neuroprotective, potentially enhancing memory by increasing neurotransmitter levels. Ecklonia cava also has anti-bacterial properties, and is believed to function in wound healing processes, cell wall construction and vascular health.

Selected Studies:

Antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of an enzymatic hydrolysate from brown alga, Ecklonia cava. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 44, Issue 7, July 2006, Pages 1065-1074. Yasantha Athukorala, Kil-Nam Kim, You-Jin Jeon

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seaweed, Ecklonia cava. Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 136, Supplement 1, October 2008, Page S598. Yun Beom Kim, Young Gun Moon, Moon Soo Heo

Ecklonia cava ethanolic extracts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV2 microglia via the MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 47, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 410-417. Won-Kyo Jung et al.

Phlorotannins in Ecklonia cava extract inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity. Life Sciences, Volume 79, Issue 15, 5 September 2006, Pages 1436-1443. Moon-Moo Kim, Quang Van Ta, Eresha Mendis, Niranjan Rajapakse, Won-Kyo Jung, Hee-Guk Byun, You-Jin Jeon, Se-Kwon Kim

Antioxidant Potential of Ecklonia cava on Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging, Metal Chelating, Reducing Power and Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition. Food Science and Technology International, Feb 2006; 12: 27 - 38.Mahinda Senevirathne, Soo-Hyun Kim, Nalin Siriwardhana, Jin-Hwan Ha, Ki-Wan Lee, and You-Jin Jeon

Antioxidative Properties of Brown Algae Polyphenolics and Their Perspectives as Chemopreventive Agents Against Vascular Risk Factors. Arch Pharm Res Vol 26, No 4, 286-293, 2003.Keejung Kang, Yongju Park, Hye Jeong Hwang, Seong Ho Kim, Jeong Gu Lee1, and Hyeon-Cheol Shin

Protective effect of Ecklonia cava enzymatic extracts on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage. Process Biochemistry, Volume 41, Issue 12, December 2006, Pages 2393-2401. Kil-Nam Kim, Soo-Jin Heo, Choon Bok Song, Jehee Lee, Moon-Soo Heo, In-Kyu Yeo, Kyoung Ah Kang, Jin Won Hyun, You-Jin Jeon

Improvement of Memory by Dieckol and Phlorofucofuroeckol in Ethanol-Treated Mice: Possible Involvement of the Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase.Arch Pharm Res Vol 28, No 6, 691-698, 2005. Chang-Seon Myung, Hyeon-Cheol Shin1, Hai Ying Bao, Soo Jeong Yeo, Bong Ho Lee, and Jong Seong Kang.

Goji Berry

Small red berries from a plant native to southeastern Europe and Asia, goji berries are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and are a popular ingredient in Chinese tonic soups, where they are thought to improve circulation, fertility and sexual function.

Scientific research has found goji berries to contain an extensive list of beneficial compounds and essential nutrients, including 18 amino acids, 6 essential vitamins, 5 caretenoids, and 2 essential fatty acids. They have also been shown to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties, and help to protect neurons and boost immunity.

Selected Studies:

Antioxidant activities of some common ingredients of traditional chinese medicine, Angelica sinensis, Lycium barbarum and Poria cocos. Phytother Res 18 (12): 1008–12. Wu SJ, Ng LT, Lin CC (December 2004).

Fasting plasma zeaxanthin response to Fructus barbarum L. (wolfberry; Kei Tze) in a food-based human supplementation trial. Br. J. Nutr. 93 (1): 123–30. Cheng CY, Chung WY, Szeto YT, Benzie IF (January 2005).

Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine Lycium barbarum against beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. Exp. Gerontol. 40 (8-9): 716–27. Yu MS, Leung SK, Lai SW, et al. (2005).

Immunomodulation and antitumor activity by a polysaccharide-protein complex from Lycium barbarum. Int. Immunopharmacol. 4 (4): 563–9. Gan L, Hua Zhang S, Liang Yang X, Bi Xu H (April 2004).

Effect of the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on age-related oxidative stress in aged mice. J Ethnopharmacol 111 (3): 504–11. Li XM, Ma YL, Liu XJ (May 2007).

Recent development of antitumor agents from Chinese herbal medicines. Part II. High molecular compounds. Planta Med. 69 (3): 193–201. Tang W, Hemm I, Bertram B (March 2003).

Coconut oil

Naturally derived from the coconut, coconut oil is a proven antioxidant. It contains significant quantities of monolauric acid – also found in human breast milk – which boosts immunity against microbial infections and viruses.

The majority of the fats provided by coconut oil are medium chain triglycerides, which are easily digested, absorbed and utilized by the body, proving an especially beneficial energy source to athletes. They have been shown to posses thermogenic (fat burning) properties, and may enhance endurance in athletes, though the studies are not conclusive.

Selected Studies:

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids 44 (7): 593–601. Assunção, ML (July 2009).

Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats Food Chemistry, Volume 99, Issue 2, 2006, Pages 260-266. K.G. Nevin, T. Rajamohan.

Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36, 950 –962. Bach, A.C. and Babayan, V.K. (1982).

Thermogenesis in man during overfeeding with medium chain triglycerides. Metabolism 38, 641– 648. Hill, J.O., Peters, J.C., Yang, D., Sharp, T., Kaler, M., Abumarad, N.N., and Greene, H.L. (1989).

The role of medium-chain triglycerides in exercise. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 6, 121–133. Berning, J.R. (1996).

Effects of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO and endurance in runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26, 81– 88. Muoio, D.H., Leddy, J.J., Horvath, P.J., Awad, A.B., and Pendergast, D.R. (1992).

Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 287–293. Lambert, E.V., Speechly, D.P., Dennis, S.C., and Noakes, T.D. (1994).

Turmeric

Turmeric is a medicine and spice made from the root of the turmeric plant, native to tropical South Asia. It has been used for centuries in South Asian cooking and Ayurvedic medicine, where it is believed to have beneficial antiseptic, antibacterial and digestive properties and is used as a blood purifier, amongst other applications.

Scientific research has shown it to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, as well as the ability to selectively kill a wide range of tumor cells. Turmeric has been shown to increase glutathione and SOD levels significantly in heart and liver tissues depleted by inflammation. Turmeric is also currently being investigated as a treatment for Alzheimer’s.

Selected Studies:

Role of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 43, Issue 4, 15 August 2007, Pages 568-580. Santosh K. Sandur, Haruyo Ichikawa, Manoj K. Pandey, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Bokyung Sung, Gautam Sethi, Bharat B. Aggarwal

Curcumin induces the degradation of cyclin E expression through ubiquitin-dependent pathway and up-regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 in multiple human tumor cell lines. Biochemical Pharmacology, Volume 73, Issue 7, 1 April 2007, Pages 1024-1032. Bharat B. Aggarwal, Sanjeev Banerjee, Uddalak Bharadwaj, Bokyung Sung, Shishir Shishodia, Gautam Sethi

Immunomodulatory effects of curcumin: In-vivo. International Immunopharmacology, Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2008, Pages 688-700. Ch. Varalakshmi, A. Mubarak Ali, B.V.V. Pardhasaradhi, Raghvendra M. Srivastava, Sarvjeet Singh, Ashok Khar

Role of phenolic O-H and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1 September 2003, Pages 475-484. K. Indira Priyadarsini, Dilip K. Maity, G. H. Naik, M. Sudheer Kumar, M. K. Unnikrishnan, J. G. Satav, Hari Moha

Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: Evidence of its antioxidant property. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 3 April 2010. Suresh R Naik, Vishnu N Thakare, Snehal R Patil

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)

CLA is a naturally occurring component of the fats found in meat and dairy products and is an antioxidant. It has been shown to help reduce body fat and increase lean muscle mass. It has also been shown to help fight inflammation, reduce risk for cardiovascular disease, and also possesses anti-cancer properties.

Selected Studies:

Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1203-11. Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA.

Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. Journal of Nutrition 130 (12): 2943–2948. Blankson H, Stakkestad JA, Fagertun H, Thom E, Wadstein J, Gudmundsen O. (1 December 2000).

Inhibition of carcinogenesis by conjugated linoleic acid: potential mechanisms of action. J Nutr. 2002 Oct;132(10):2995-8. Belury MA.

Inflammation and conjugated linoleic acid: mechanisms of action and implications for human health. J. Physiol. Biochem. 61 (3): 483–94. Zulet MA, Marti A, Parra MD, Martínez JA (September 2005).

Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and cancer. J Nutr. 2007 Dec;137(12):2599-607. Kelley NS, Hubbard NE, Erickson KL.

Conjugated linoleic acid. A powerful anticarcinogen from animal fat sources. Cancer 233 (3): 1050–4. Ip C, Scimeca JA, Thompson HJ. (1994).

Luo Han Guo

Luo Han Guo is a fruit native to southern China and is used as a low calorie sweetener and medicine. It is also known as the longevity fruit, and is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to help treat chronic lung ailments and increase lifespan, amongst other things. Scientific research suggests that it is an antioxidant and may help prevent cancer. It may also prove effective in helping to treat diabetes and obesity.

Selected Studies: Antioxidant property of fructus momordicae extract. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 1996; 40 (6): 1111-1121. Shi H, et al.

Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds. Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1309-1316. Konoshima T and Takasaki M.

Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Supplement 1997; 27: 59-67. Katiyar SK and Mukhtar H.

Trimethylglycine (TMG):

TMG, also known as betaine, is an organic compound found in food such as beets, quinoa and spinach, and is essential for human well being. TMG helps to stabilize protein and prevent it from breaking down, playing an anabolic role in the body. It also serves as a methyl donor, working to normalize the efficiency of methylation/sulfation pathways, and is required for mitochondrial protein and nucleic acid synthesis. It maintains cellular replication, liver function and helps detoxify cells from certain substances. TMG is critical to protect cells from hyperosmotic stress, and assists in cell volume regulation.

While TMG supplementation has been proven to increase lean muscle mass and decrease body fat in livestock and is widely used in the industry, few studies have been done on humans. More comprehensive studies are necessary, though a ‘highly significant’ negative association between TMG levels in the blood and obesity has already been established (the higher your percentage of body fat, the lower your plasma TMG concentration).

Select Studies:

The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Clinical Biochemistry, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 March 2010. Michael Lever, Sandy Slow.

N-trimethylglycine (betaine) transport is critical to protect HEPG2 cells from hyperosmotic stress. Gastroenterology, Volume 108, Issue 4, Supplement 3, April 1995, Page A1040. JC Bucuvalas, JA Bezerra, C. Schmidt, CE Burnham.

Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women. J Nutr 2008;138:914–20. Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Nygård O, Bleie Ø, Ueland PM.

Betaine Supplementation and Blood Lipids: Fact or Artifact? Nutr Rev 2006;64:77–9. Szegedi SS, Castro CC, Koutmos M, Garrow TA. Betaine-homocysteine S-Zeisel SH.

Methyl donor supplementation prevents transgenerational amplification of obesity. Int J Obesity 2008;32:1373–9. Waterland RA, Travisano M, Tahiliani KG, Rached MT, Mirza S.

Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenic enzyme activities and fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in nishing pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2008;140:36575. Huang QC, Xu ZR, Han XY, Han XY, Li WF.

Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa is a plant used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine as, amongst other things, a memory enhancer, anti-inflammatory agent, nerve tonic and heart tonic. Scientific research has bolstered these findings, deeming it an antioxidant, neuroprotectant, anti-inflammatory, adaptogen (protects against stress) and cognitive enhancer.

Selected Studies:

Cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Bacopa monnieri in Alzheimer's disease model. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 127, Issue 1, 8 January 2010, Pages 26-31. Nongnut Uabundit, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Supaporn Mucimapura, Kornkanok Ingkaninan

Anti-inflammatory activity of Bacopa monniera in rodents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 104, Issues 1-2, 8 March 2006, Pages 286-289 Shabana Channa, Ahsana Dar, Shazia Anjum, Muhammad Yaqoob, Atta-ur-Rahman

Neuroprotective efficacy of Bacopa monnieri against rotenone induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. NeuroToxicology, Volume 30, Issue 6, November 2009, Pages 977-985. Ravikumar Hosamani, Muralidhara

Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview. Phytomedicine, Volume 12, Issue 4, 20 April 2005, Pages 305-317. A. Russo, F. Borrelli

N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC)

NAC is a precursor to the amino acid L-cysteine and to reduced glutathione (GSH). NAC counteracts oxidative stress and replenishes glutathione levels, as well as supports healthy heart function. It is also an anti-inflammatory agent, and may help athletes speed recovery by supporting skeletal muscle microcirculation. It has also been shown to reduce exercise-induced diaphragm and respiratory fatigue, a key limiting factor in physical performance.

In several clinical trials, cysteine supplementation improved skeletal muscle functions, including strength, decreased the body fat/lean body mass ratio, improved immune functions, and increased plasma albumin levels (which helps maintain muscle mass and promotes a natural anabolic state in the body, amongst other functions). Scientific research has found that the dietary consumption of cysteine is generally insufficient, and that virtually everyone is likely to have a cysteine deficiency sooner or later.

Selected Studies:

Effects of N-acetylcysteine on respiratory muscle fatigue during heavy exercise. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 165, Issue 1, 1 January 2009, Pages 67-72. Megan K. Kelly, Reneé J. Wicker, Thomas J. Barstow, Craig A. Harms.

N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 94: 2468 – 2474, 1994. Reid, M. B., D. S. Stokic, S. M. Koch, F. A. Khawli, and A. A. Leis.

Effect of N-acetylcysteine on diaphragm fatigue. J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 2107 – 2113, 1990. Shindoh, C., A. DiMarco, A. Thomas, P. Manubay, and G. Supinski.

Antioxidant effects of stereoisomers of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), L-NAC and D-NAC, on angiotensin II-stimulated MAP kinase activation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Aug;95(4):483-6. Epub 2004 Aug 5. Kyaw M, Yoshizumi M, Tsuchiya K, Izawa Y, Kanematsu Y, Fujita Y, Ali N, Ishizawa K, Yamauchi A, Tamaki T.

The antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine: Its reaction with hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 6, 1989, Pages 593-597. Okezie I. Aruoma, Barry Halliwell, Brigid M. Hoey, John Butle.

Acute effects of N-acetylcysteine on skeletal muscle microcirculation following closed soft tissue trauma in rats. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Volume 23, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages 231-241. Klaus-D. Schaser, Herman J. Bail, Lioba Schewior, John F. Stover, Ingo Melcher, Norbert P. Haas, Thomas Mittlmeier.

Royal Jelly

Royal jelly is a food made by workers bees but consumed only by the queen bee. While the queen and the workers possess the same genes and anatomy, on a diet of royal jelly the queen grows one and a half times larger than the workers and lives up to 40 times longer. Royal jelly has been found to possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and immune boosting properties, amongst others.

Selected Studies:

Trace and mineral elements in royal jelly and homeostatic effects. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 19, Issues 2-3, 2 December 2005, Pages 183-189. Andreas Stocker, Peter Schramel, Antonius Kettrup, Eberhard Bengsch

Analysis of anti-allergic function of royal jelly. Natural Med. 55, 174 – 180. Kataoka, M., Arai, N., Taniguchi, Y., Kohno, K., Iwaki, K., Ikeda, M., Kurimoto, M., 2001.

The antioxidant properties of Royal jelly. Jpn. Pharmacol. Ther. 24, 1463 – 1471. Kuwahara, Y., Hori, Y., Yoneta, T., Ikeda, Y., 1996. [in Japanese].

Antiutumor effect of royal jelly. Folia Pharmacol. Japon 89, 73 – 80. Tamura, T., Fujii, A., Kumoyama, N., 1987. [in Japanese].

Royal Jelly prolongs the life span of C3H/HeJ mice: correlation with reduced DNA damage. Experimental Gerontology, Volume 38, Issue 9, 1 September 2003, Pages 965-969. Shin-ichiro Inoue, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Shimpei Ushio, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto.

Screening of biological activities present in honeybee (Apis mellifera) royal jelly Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 19, Issue 5, August 2005, Pages 645-651. L.A. Salazar-Olivo, V. Paz-González

Major royal jelly protein 3 modulates immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Life Sciences, Volume 73, Issue 16, 5 September 2003, Pages 2029-2045. Iwao Okamoto, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Toshio Kunikata, Keizo Kohno, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto

Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB)

HMB is a natural acid made in the human body that comes from the essential amino acid leucine (it is a metabolite of leucine). It has a protein anabolic effect and is good for increasing lean muscle mass and increasing muscle strength during exercise. HMB has been shown to prevent exercise-induced protein degradation and muscle damage. It has also been shown to promote muscle cell proliferation, cell differentiation and fusion, and enhance muscle cell survival.

Selected Studies:

Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein metabolism in whole body and in selected tissues. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 47, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 255-259. M. Holecek, T. Muthny, M. Kovarik, L. Sispera

Creatine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition, Volume 17, Issues 7-8, July-August 2001, Pages 558-566. Ewa Jówko, Piotr Ostaszewski, Michal Jank, Jaroslaw Sacharuk, Agnieszka Zieniewicz, Jacek Wilczak, Steve Nissen

β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) stimulates myogenic cell proliferation, differentiation and survival via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, Volume 1793, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 755-763. Reut Kornasio, Ingo Riederer, Gillian Butler-Browne, Vincent Mouly, Zehava Uni, Orna Halevy.

Effect of leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology. Volume 81, Issue 5, November 1996, Pages 2095-2104. Nissen, S., Sharp, R., Ray, M., Rathmacher, J.A., Rice, D., Fuller Jr., J.C., Connelly, A.S., Abumrad, N.

DHA

DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) is a naturally occurring omega 3 fatty acid commonly found in fish oil. While the human body is incapable of making DHA, it is vital to health, particularly to brain and neuron function, as 50% of the weight of the neuronal plasma membrane is made of DHA. DHA deficiency is associated with cognitive decline, increased neural cell death and depression.

DHA is also important to general cellular health. It is literally a building block of cell membranes and influences cellular elasticity, ion permeability (and therefore cellular ‘charge’) and membrane organization of cells. It also functions as an anti-inflammatory agent, and recent research has shown that DHA supplementation combined with exercise elevates the capacity of the adult brain for axonal growth, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function.

Selected Studies:

Essential Fatty Acids, DHA and the Human Brain. Indian J Pediatr 2005; 72 (3): 239-242. Meharban Singh.

N-3 Fatty acids and the inflammatory response – biological background. Eur Heart J Supplements 2001; 3 (Suppl D): D42-D49. De Caterina, R and Basta, G

Effects of docosahexaenoic acid-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation on cytokine release from blood mononuclear leukocytes: the OmegAD study. Am J Clin Nutr 87 (6): 1616–1622. Vedin I, et al. (1 June 2008).

Selective deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of patients with major depressive disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 62 (1): 17–24. McNamara RK, Hahn CG, Jandacek R, et al. (2007).

Comparative effects of DHA and EPA on cell function. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 122, Issue 1, April 2009, Pages 56-64. Renata Gorjão, Anna Karenina Azevedo-Martins, Hosana Gomes Rodrigues, Fernando Abdulkader, Manoel Arcisio-Miranda, Joaquim Procopio, Rui Curi.

Exercise contributes to the effects of DHA dietary supplementation by acting on membrane-related synaptic systems. Brain Research, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 13 May 2009. Gabriela Chytrova, Zhe Ying, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla

DMAE

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is an organic compound found in certain fish, and it produces choline in the brain. Adequate choline is an important part of cellular health, as it is essential in the formation of cell membranes. DMAE is currently used to treat ADD and ADHD, and there is a hypothesis that DMAE helps retard aging by protecting cell membrane and structure, and that it may have anti-cancer properties, though studies are not conclusive.

Selected Studies:

Lysosomes, membranes and aging. Exp. Gerontol., 6(1971) 153--166. R. Hochschild.

A membrane hypothesis of aging. J. Theor. Biol. 75 (1978) 189--195. I. Zs.-Nagy.

The role of membrane structure and function in cellular aging: a review. Mech. Ageing Dev. 9 (1979) 237--246. I. Zs.-Nagy.

Effects of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (Deanol) on the metabolism of choline in plasma. J. Neurochem., 30 (1978) 1293--1296. G. Ceder, L. Dahlberg and J. Schuberth.

Electron spin resonance spectroscopic demonstration of the hydrdoxyl free radical scavenger properties of dimethylarninoethanol in spin trapping experiments confirming the molecular basis for the biological effects of centrophenoxine. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr., 3 (1984) 297--310. I. Zs.-Nagy and R.A. Floyd.

Effect of dimethylaminoethyl-p-chlorophenoxyacetate on the life span of male Swiss-Webster albino mice. Exp. Gerontol., 8 (1973) 177--183. R. Hochschild.

Glisodin

Glisodin is a patented 100% vegetable source of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). SOD is a super anti-oxidant produced within our cells to protect them from free radicals. As we age, our SOD levels go down. Glisodin increases your body’s production of SOD, stimulating the defense against free radicals, boosting your immune system and helping to protect your skin from sun damage. Glisodin may also prevent stress-induced impairment of cognitive function, allowing you to think clearly under pressure.

Selected Studies:

Superoxide dismutase: correlation with life-span and specific metabolic rate in primate species. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 77, 2777 – 2781. Tolmasoff, J.M., Ono, T., Cutlur, R.G., 1984.

Oral supplementation with melon superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defences in the brain and prevents stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. Behavioural Brain Research, Volume 200, Issue 1, 8 June 2009, Pages 15-21. Sanae Nakajima, Ikuroh Ohsawa, Kazufumi Nagata, Shigeo Ohta, Makoto Ohno, Tetsuo Ijichi, Toshio Mikami.

Enhanced expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase leads to prolonged in vivo cell cycle progression and up-regulation of mitochondrial thioredoxin.Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 48, Issue 11, 1 June 2010, Pages 1501-1512 Aekyong Kim, Suman Joseph, Aslam Khan, Charles J. Epstein, Raymond Sobel, Ting-Ting Huang.

Age- and peroxidative stress-related modifications of the cerebral enzymatic activities linked to mitochondria and the glutathione system. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 1, July 1995, Pages 77-101. Gianni Benzi, Antonio Moretti.

Oxidative stress and antioxidants: how to assess a risk or a prevention? Theoretical consideration and application to SOD-Gliadin.”Laboratory of Fundamental and Applied Bioenergetics.INSERM U884 and University Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble , France. Leverve, X.

Glisodin and Exposure to the Sun. An open study conducted in France on 150 patients by 40 dermatologists following a protocol compiled by Catherine Laverdet, M.D., Nadine Pomarede, M.D. and Catherine Oliveres-Ghouti, M.D. Sponsored by ISOCELL Nutra, France. (March 2005).

Proanthodyn

Proanthodyn is extracted from grape seeds, and has been shown to protect blood capillaries and heart function, as well as being an anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent. It is thought to promote health aging and healthy cellular function.

Selected Studies:

Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutat Res 2003;523-524:87-97. Bagchi D, Sen CK, Ray SD, Das DK, Bagchi M, Preuss HG, et al.

Procyanidins as antioxidants and tumor cell growth modulators. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:2392-7. Faria A, Calhau C, de Freitas V, Mateus N.

Antiproliferative effect of antioxidant polyphenols from grape in murine Hepa-1c1c7. Eur J Nutr 2003;42:43-9. Matito C, Mastorakou F, Centelles JJ, Torres JL, Cascante M.

Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by grape seed proanthocyanidin is accompanied by a decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis. Nutr Cancer 2004; 49:81-8. Nomoto H, Iigo M, Hamada H, Kojima S, Tsuda H.

Resveratrol: preventing properties against vascular alterations and ageing. Mol Nutr Food Res 2005;49: 377-95. Delmas D, Jannin B, Latruffe N.

Concentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:252-62. Castilla P, Echarri R, Davalos A, Cerrato F, Ortega H, Teruel JL, et al.

Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds. Ann NY Acad Sci.957:260-70. Bagchi D et al. 2002 May.

†The products and claims made about supplements and throughout this website have not been evaluated by Ignite Naturals or the United States Food and Drug Administration and are not approved to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease.