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Cellular Cleansing for Effective Recovery and Daily Energy

I.N. Extreme Energy’s 100% all-natural formula is a mega-blend of antioxidants, proteins and amino acids that supports your body in recovery mode. I.N. Extreme Energy nourishes and protects cells when they are at their most vulnerable—after exercising, training or a competition.

Free radicals, cellular waste and toxins build up in your cells as you train or exercise. Masters or competitive athletes especially, produce more waste due to intense workout schedules. As we age, our cells cannot expel wastes and toxins like they used to. If left to accumulate, waste, toxins and free radicals can and will damage cell function and even alter DNA structure. When fighting waste, cells have less energy to repair muscle, produce more energy and support a strong immune system.

The only way to avoid a sluggish recovery and a massive energy drain is to build healthier cells. And when cells are functioning at peak performance, it shows—shorter recovery times, more energy and fewer illnesses.

The Danger Behind the Most Common Recovery Supplement Ingredient

Traditional recovery products contain a 3:1(or 4:1) ratio of carbs to protein and amino acids. Recovery nutritional supplements that contain processed sugar or artificial ingredients actually prolong recovery because they increase oxidative stress to cells and overwhelm internal organs like the adrenals.

Nearly all of them contain maltodextrin, a processed sugar.

The body requires sugar at times to function normally. But simple sugars, like those that come from fruit, are the healthier option over processed sugars. maltodextrin is a polysaccharide created when acids or enzymes are added to cornstarch. The process breaks them down into dextrose molecules. Because of its long-chain glucose molecule structure, it’s then classified as a complex carb. Big mistake.

Sure, it’s a complex carb, but maltodextrin’s simple repeated dextrose structure doesn’t deliver long-term energy like true complex carbs do. First, digestive enzymes must alter it before the body can begin to benefit from its energy—taxing cells even further. maltodextrin lacks vitamins, minerals, ultimately reducing the amount of vitamins and minerals in the body.

I.N. Extreme Energy Uses the Science of All-natural Ingredients

Sugar delivers a quick burst of energy. Mood instantly improves so recovery feels unnecessary or already complete. But sugar fakes out the body. Artificially high levels of blood sugar and energy can’t be sustained. There’s no dispute as to whether or not carbs are needed post-workout, but a natural carb source is key.

I.N. Extreme Energy is a source of natural carbs, and also proteins, amino acids and antioxidants that work on the cellular level. For better health and complete recovery, it has to occur naturally, supported by natural, hormone-free, organic ingredients like those in I.N. Extreme Energy including:

Hormone-free egg albumin provides over 40 different proteins, forming essential amino acids. Ours is a slow release glycoprotein, which prevents kidney stress, and has been found to soften the skin when taken internally. Read more…

Organic cocoa powder ground from the seeds of the cacao tree is an effective antioxidant that also provides neurotransmitters that increase mental alertness, focus, and happiness. Arginine in cocoa, a precursor for nitric oxide, helps accelerates recovery time and decrease blood pressure. Read more…

Hormone-free bovine immunoglobulin concentrate fights against viruses and bacteria. Our formula is similar to the colostrum found in breast milk, serving both as a supply of high quality, absorptive protein and as an immune booster. Immunoglobulins help improve liver function and reduce LDL cholesterol while keeping HDL, the "good" cholesterol, levels constant. Read more…

Naturally derived coconut oil contains monolauric acid to boost immunity against microbial infections and viruses. It possesses fat burning properties and may enhance endurance. Read more…

Luo Han Guo is a fruit native to southern China and used as a low calorie sweetener and medicine. It is also known as the longevity fruit, and used in traditional Chinese medicine to help treat chronic lung ailments and increase lifespan. Read more…

Trimethylglycine (TMG), also known as betaine, is an organic compound found in food like beets, quinoa and spinach. TMG helps stabilize protein and prevents it from breaking down. It maintains cellular replication, liver function and helps detoxify cells. Read more… Naturally derived ecklonia cava, from a species of brown algae found off the coast of Korea, is a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent with anti-bacterial and wound healing properties. It is a neuroprotective, potentially enhancing memory by increasing neurotransmitter levels. Read more…

Papain, naturally derived from papaya, is a cysteine protease hydrolase enzyme with anti-inflammatory qualities. Papain helps accelerate wound healing. Read more…

Organic Turmeric has antiseptic, antibacterial and digestive properties and is used as a blood purifier. This super ingredient has been shown to increase glutathione and SOD levels significantly in heart and liver tissues depleted by inflammation. Read more…test

Coenzyme Co Q10, essential for cells to generate energy, is a naturally occurring nutrient found in some vegetables, meat and fish. CoQ10 levels typically decrease with aging, and may contribute to the loss of cellular function. It supports healthy heart function and helps prevent hypertension (high blood pressure), important for endurance athletes. Read more…

Lycopene is a carotenoid found in tomatoes. It is a proven antioxidant that may significantly lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disorders and certain respiratory and other types of cancers. It’s critical for endurance athletes, who need to keep their cells hydrated over long periods of activity. Read more…

Calcium D-Glutarate is found in fruits and vegetables like apples, oranges, broccoli and Brussels sprouts. It helps clear the body of metabolic wastes and toxins, and balance hormones and metabolism. It may also help lower LDL cholesterol. Read more…

Royal Jelly has anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and immune boosting properties, amongst others. Read more…

Hormone-Free Egg Albumin

Hormone-free egg albumin, or egg white, is a cholesterol-free food that provides over 40 different proteins, forming amino acids essential to the human body. Egg albumin is highly recognized by the body - albumin is also the most abundant plasma protein in our blood, and serves an important osmotic function, preventing the water in blood from moving into the interstitial fluid. Egg albumin is also a slow release glycoprotein, which prevents kidney stress, and has been found to soften the skin when taken internally. Ovalbumin, which makes up approximately 60% of the total protein of egg albumin, also chelates potentially harmful heavy metals in your system and prevents them from being absorbed.

Selected Studies:

The basic amino-acids of crystalline egg-ablumin. Biochem J. 1932;26(4):1101-6. Bradford Vicery, H. & Shore, S.

The complete amino-acid sequence of hen ovalbumin. European Journal of Biochemistry 115(2): 335. Nisbet AD, Saundry RH, Moir AJG, Fothergill LA, Fothergill JE (1981).

Medical Biochemistry, 2d edition, p 59. Dominiczak M, Baynes J. Publisher: Mobsy El Sevier (2005). ISBN: 978-0-323-05371-6.
Organic Cocoa

Our organic cocoa powder is ground from the seeds of the cacao tree. Scientific research has found cocoa to be an effective antioxidant, as well as providing neurotransmitters that increase mental alertness, focus, and happiness.

In addition, several compounds found in cocoa promote healthy heart function and help degrade atherosclerotic plaque that can build up in arteries and deprive organs and tissues of essential blood if left untreated. Finally, the arginine present in cocoa, which is the precursor for nitric oxide, helps accelerates recovery time and decrease blood pressure.

Selected Studies:

Enzymatic function of nitric oxide synthases. Cardiovascular Research43 (3): 521–531 REVIEW. Andrew, P.J.; Myer, B. (August 15 1999).

L-Arginine and hypertension. Journal of Nutrition134 (10 Suppl): 2807S-2811S REVIEW. Gokce, N.. (October 2004).

Exogenous L-arginine ameliorates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and renal damage in rats. Hypertension52 (6): 1084–1090. Rajapakse, N.W.; et al. (December 2008).

Arginine supplementation and wound healing. Nutrition in Clinical Practice20 (13): 52–61 REVIEW. Stechmiller, J.K.; et al. (February 2005).

Arginine physiology and its implication for wound healing. Wound Repair and Regeneration11 (6): 419–423 REVIEW. Witte, M.B.; Barbul, A (Nov-Dec 2003).

Heart-healthy Compound In Chocolate Identified. ScienceDaily. University of California - Davis (2006, January 20).
Hormone-Free Bovine Immunoglobulin Concentrate

Immunoglobulins are antibodies – bioactive proteins that your immune system uses to fight against intruding viruses and bacteria. Over 60 clinical studies have been published on the therapeutic effects of Immunoglobulins. The hormone-free immunoglobulin concentrate in I.N. Extreme Energy is similar to the colostrum found in breast milk, serving both as a supply of high-quality, absorptive protein and as an immune booster. It delivers antibodies to your gut where they fight against disease-causing organisms and inflammation, allowing your body more energy for other tasks. Unlike antibiotics, which destroy both good and bad bacteria, immunoglobulins only work against the bad bacteria, for optimal immune health.

Immunoglobulins have also been shown to help improve liver function, and reduce LDL cholesterol (the kind associated with heart disease)while keeping HDL, the "good" cholesterol, levels constant.

Selected Studies:

Dietary plasma proteins modulate the immune response of diffuse GALT. J Nutr Vol 138 pp 533. Perez Bosque et al., 2008.

Dietary plasma protein affects the immune response. J Nutr 134 pp 2667. Perez Bosque et al., 2004.

Spray-dried animal plasma prevents the effects of SEB on intestinal barrier function in rats. J Nutr 196 pp 2838 2843. Perez-Bosque et al.

The equivalency of Plasma and Ig in Affecting Growth. J Anim Sci 83 pp 2876. Pierce et al 2005.

Effects of bovine serum concentrate on children. EJCN AOP 14 Feb 2007. Begin et al 2007.

Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. Nature Med 12 pp 1365 1371. Brenchley et al 2006.

Alteration of somatotropic function by proinflammatory cytokines. J Anim Sci 82 pp E100. Frost and Lang 2004.

Effect of animal plasma proteins on intestinal damage and recovery. J Nutr Biochem Vol 18 pp 778 to 784. Moon et al 2007.
Coconut oil

Naturally derived from the coconut, coconut oil is a proven antioxidant. It contains significant quantities of monolauric acid – also found in human breast milk – which boosts immunity against microbial infections and viruses.

The majority of the fats provided by coconut oil are medium chain triglycerides, which are easily digested, absorbed and utilized by the body, proving an especially beneficial energy source to athletes. They have been shown to posses thermogenic (fat burning) properties, and may enhance endurance in athletes, though the studies are not conclusive.

Selected Studies:

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids 44 (7): 593–601. Assunção, ML (July 2009).

Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats Food Chemistry, Volume 99, Issue 2, 2006, Pages 260-266. K.G. Nevin, T. Rajamohan.

Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36, 950 –962. Bach, A.C. and Babayan, V.K. (1982).

Thermogenesis in man during overfeeding with medium chain triglycerides. Metabolism 38, 641– 648. Hill, J.O., Peters, J.C., Yang, D., Sharp, T., Kaler, M., Abumarad, N.N., and Greene, H.L. (1989).

The role of medium-chain triglycerides in exercise. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 6, 121–133. Berning, J.R. (1996).

Effects of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO and endurance in runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26, 81– 88. Muoio, D.H., Leddy, J.J., Horvath, P.J., Awad, A.B., and Pendergast, D.R. (1992).

Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 287–293. Lambert, E.V., Speechly, D.P., Dennis, S.C., and Noakes, T.D. (1994).
Luo Han Guo

Luo Han Guo is a fruit native to southern China and is used as a low calorie sweetener and medicine. It is also known as the longevity fruit, and is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to help treat chronic lung ailments and increase lifespan, amongst other things. Scientific research suggests that it is an antioxidant and may help prevent cancer. It may also prove effective in helping to treat diabetes and obesity.

Selected Studies:

Antioxidant property of fructus momordicae extract. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 1996; 40 (6): 1111-1121. Shi H, et al.

Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds. Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1309-1316. Konoshima T and Takasaki M.

Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Supplement 1997; 27: 59-67. Katiyar SK and Mukhtar H.
Trimethylglycine (TMG):

TMG, also known as betaine, is an organic compound found in food such as beets, quinoa and spinach, and is essential for human well being. TMG helps to stabilize protein and prevent it from breaking down, playing an anabolic role in the body. It also serves as a methyl donor, working to normalize the efficiency of methylation/sulfation pathways, and is required for mitochondrial protein and nucleic acid synthesis. It maintains cellular replication, liver function and helps detoxify cells from certain substances. TMG is critical to protect cells from hyperosmotic stress, and assists in cell volume regulation.

While TMG supplementation has been proven to increase lean muscle mass and decrease body fat in livestock and is widely used in the industry, few studies have been done on humans. More comprehensive studies are necessary, though a ‘highly significant’ negative association between TMG levels in the blood and obesity has already been established (the higher your percentage of body fat, the lower your plasma TMG concentration).

Select Studies:

The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Clinical Biochemistry, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 March 2010. Michael Lever, Sandy Slow.

N-trimethylglycine (betaine) transport is critical to protect HEPG2 cells from hyperosmotic stress. Gastroenterology, Volume 108, Issue 4, Supplement 3, April 1995, Page A1040. JC Bucuvalas, JA Bezerra, C. Schmidt, CE Burnham.

Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women. J Nutr 2008;138:914–20. Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Nygård O, Bleie Ø, Ueland PM.

Betaine Supplementation and Blood Lipids: Fact or Artifact? Nutr Rev 2006;64:77–9. Szegedi SS, Castro CC, Koutmos M, Garrow TA. Betaine-homocysteine S-Zeisel SH.

Methyl donor supplementation prevents transgenerational amplification of obesity. Int J Obesity 2008;32:1373–9. Waterland RA, Travisano M, Tahiliani KG, Rached MT, Mirza S.

Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenic enzyme activities and fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in nishing pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2008;140:36575. Huang QC, Xu ZR, Han XY, Han XY, Li WF.
Papain

Papain, naturally derived from the papaya fruit, is a cysteine protease hydrolase enzyme that possesses anti-inflammatory qualities. Its ability to hydrolyze large proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids assists in the digestion of proteins. In this way, papain improves the assimilation of both the egg white protein and the bovine immunoglobulin protein. Papain has also been used to treat edema, ulcers, and to help accelerate wound healing.

Selected studies:

Emerging roles for cysteine proteases in human biology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 1997. 59:63–88. Harold A. Chapman, Richard J. Riese, and Guo-Ping Shi.

Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 46, Issue 7, July 2008, Pages 2384-2389. Nor Suhada Anuar, Shafiyyah Solehah Zahari, Ibrahim Adham Taib, Mohammad Tariqur Rahman.

Role of proteolytic enzymes in biological regulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:3825– 32. Neurath H, Walsh KA. 1976. Alignment/phylogeny of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases. J. Mol Biol. Berti PJ, Storer AC. 1995.

Neutral endopeptidase modulates neurogenic inflammation. Eur. Resp. J. 4:745–54. Nadel JA. 1991.
Organic Turmeric

Turmeric is a medicine and spice made from the root of the turmeric plant, native to tropical South Asia. It has been used for centuries in South Asian cooking and Ayurvedic medicine, where it is believed to have beneficial antiseptic, antibacterial and digestive properties and is used as a blood purifier, amongst other applications.

Scientific research has shown it to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, as well as the ability to selectively kill a wide range of tumor cells. Turmeric has been shown to increase glutathione and SOD levels significantly in heart and liver tissues depleted by inflammation. Turmeric is also currently being investigated as a treatment for Alzheimer’s.

Selected Studies:

Role of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 43, Issue 4, 15 August 2007, Pages 568-580. Santosh K. Sandur, Haruyo Ichikawa, Manoj K. Pandey, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Bokyung Sung, Gautam Sethi, Bharat B. Aggarwal

Curcumin induces the degradation of cyclin E expression through ubiquitin-dependent pathway and up-regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 in multiple human tumor cell lines. Biochemical Pharmacology, Volume 73, Issue 7, 1 April 2007, Pages 1024-1032. Bharat B. Aggarwal, Sanjeev Banerjee, Uddalak Bharadwaj, Bokyung Sung, Shishir Shishodia, Gautam Sethi

Immunomodulatory effects of curcumin: In-vivo. International Immunopharmacology, Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2008, Pages 688-700. Ch. Varalakshmi, A. Mubarak Ali, B.V.V. Pardhasaradhi, Raghvendra M. Srivastava, Sarvjeet Singh, Ashok Khar

Role of phenolic O-H and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1 September 2003, Pages 475-484. K. Indira Priyadarsini, Dilip K. Maity, G. H. Naik, M. Sudheer Kumar, M. K. Unnikrishnan, J. G. Satav, Hari Moha

Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: Evidence of its antioxidant property. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 3 April 2010. Suresh R Naik, Vishnu N Thakare, Snehal R Patil
Co Q10

Coenzyme CoQ10 (also called ubiquinone) is a naturally occurring nutrient found in some vegetables, meat and fish. From age 20 onwards, CoQ10 levels in the body typically decrease, and decreased levels may contribute to the loss of cellular function that accompanies aging. CoQ10 is essential for your cells to generate energy: it is a vital component of the electron transport chain, necessary for cellular respiration, and supplementation may help improve athletic performance by decreasing fatigue and recovery time, though further studies are needed. CoQ10 also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect the cell membrane and prevent DNA damage. It has been shown in some studies to increase lifespan. It also supports healthy heart function and helps prevent hypertension (high blood pressure), especially important for the endurance athlete.

Selected Studies:

Antifatigue effects of coenzyme Q10 during physical fatigue. Nutrition. Volume 24, Issue 4, April 2008, Pages 293-299. Mizuno, K., M. Tanaka, et al.

Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials. J Human Hypertension. 21: 297-306, 2007. Rosenfeldt FL, Haas SJ, Krum H, Hadj A, Ng K, Leong J-Y, Watts GF.

Coenzyme Q-10 and Lifespan Extension. Advances in Anti-Aging Medicine. 1 (1): 205–215. Coles L, Harris S (1996).

Coenzyme Q supplementation protects from age-related DNA double-strand breaks and increases lifespan in rats fed on a PUFA-rich diet. Exp Gerontol. 39 (2): 189–94. Quiles JL, Ochoa JJ, Huertas JR, Mataix J (2004).

Age-related changes in the lipid compositions of rat and human tissues. Lipids 24 (7): 579–584. Kalén, A.; Appelkvist, E. L.; Dallner, G. (1989).

Biosynthesis, bioproduction and novel roles of ubiquinone. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 94, Issue 6, December 2002, Pages 511-517. Makoto Kawamukai.

Tissue coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) and protein concentrations over the life span of the laboratory rat. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 32, Issues 2-3, November 1985, Pages 267-281. Robert E. Beyer et al.
Lycopene

Lycopene is a carotenoid found in tomatoes. It is a proven antioxidant that may significantly lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disorders and certain respiratory and other types of cancers. It is also involved in enhancing cellular function by protecting DNA and strengthening cell membranes (the ‘walls’ of cells) and keeping cells well hydrated – especially important for endurance athletes, who need to fight to keep their cells adequately hydrated over extended periods of activity. Lycopene may also stimulate the body’s own production of potent antioxidants GSH and SOD.

Selected Studies:

Potent antioxidative activity of lycopene: A potential role in scavenging hypochlorous acid. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 49, Issue 2, 15 July 2010, Pages 205-213. Subramaniam Pennathur, Dhiman Maitra, Jaeman Byun, Inga Sliskovic, Ibrahim Abdulhamid, Ghassan M. Saed, Michael P. Diamond, Husam M. Abu-Soud

Dietary uptake of lycopene protects human cells from singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide – ROS components from cigarette smoke  Original Research Article Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 64, Issues 2-3, 15 November 2001, Pages 176-178. Fritz Böhm, Ruth Edge, Marc Burke, T. G. Truscott.

The role of cellular hydration in the regulation of cell function, review article. Biochem. J. (1996) 313, 697–710. Dieter Haussinger.

Tomato lycopene and its role in human health and chronic diseases. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 163:739–744; 2000. Agarwal, S.; Rao, A. V.

Effect of short term supplementation of tomatoes on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation type-II diabetes. Indian J. Clin. Biochem. 22:95–98; 2007. Subhash, K.; Bose, C.; Agrawal, B. K.

Protective effect of lycopene on lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage in cell culture. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 383:56–59; 2000. Matos, H. R.; Di Mascio, P.; Medeiros, M. H.
Calcium D-Glutarate

Calcium D-Glutarate is the calcium salt of D-glucaric acid, made in small amounts in the body and found in fruits and vegetables like apples, oranges, broccoli and brussel sprouts. It has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-cancer properties, and is helpful in cellular detoxification, aiding to clear the body of metabolic wastes and toxins, and balance hormones and metabolism. It may also help lower LDL cholesterol.

Selected Studies:

Mechanism of growth inhibition of mammary carcinomas by glucarate and the glucarate:retinoid combination. Anticancer Res 1993; 13:2095-2100. Webb TE, Abou-Issa H, Stromberg PC, et al.

Cholesterol lowering effects of dietary D-glucarate. FASEB 1991;5:A930. Walaszek Z, Hanausek-Walaszek M, Adams AK, Sherman U.

Calcium glucarate as a chemopreventive agent in breast cancer. Isr J Med Sci 1995;31:101-105. Heerdt , AS , Young CW, Borgen PI.

Metabolism, uptake, and excretion of a D-glucaric acid salt and its potential use in cancer prevention. Cancer Detect Prev 1997;21:178-190. Walaszek Z, Szemraj J, Narog M, et al.

Dietary glucarate as anti-promoter of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 1986;7:1463-1466. Walaszek Z, Hanausek-Walaszek M, Minto JP, Webb TE.

Mechanism of growth inhibition of mammary carcinomas by glucarate and the glucarate:retinoid combination. Anticancer Res 1993;13:2095-2100. Webb TE, Abou-Issa H, Stromberg PC, et al.
Royal Jelly

Royal jelly is a food made by workers bees but consumed only by the queen bee. While the queen and the workers possess the same genes and anatomy, on a diet of royal jelly the queen grows one and a half times larger than the workers and lives up to 40 times longer. Royal jelly has been found to possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and immune boosting properties, amongst others.

Selected Studies:

Trace and mineral elements in royal jelly and homeostatic effects. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 19, Issues 2-3, 2 December 2005, Pages 183-189. Andreas Stocker, Peter Schramel, Antonius Kettrup, Eberhard Bengsch

Analysis of anti-allergic function of royal jelly. Natural Med. 55, 174 – 180. Kataoka, M., Arai, N., Taniguchi, Y., Kohno, K., Iwaki, K., Ikeda, M., Kurimoto, M., 2001.

The antioxidant properties of Royal jelly. Jpn. Pharmacol. Ther. 24, 1463 – 1471. Kuwahara, Y., Hori, Y., Yoneta, T., Ikeda, Y., 1996. [in Japanese].

Antiutumor effect of royal jelly. Folia Pharmacol. Japon 89, 73 – 80. Tamura, T., Fujii, A., Kumoyama, N., 1987. [in Japanese].

Royal Jelly prolongs the life span of C3H/HeJ mice: correlation with reduced DNA damage. Experimental Gerontology, Volume 38, Issue 9, 1 September 2003, Pages 965-969. Shin-ichiro Inoue, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Shimpei Ushio, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto.

Screening of biological activities present in honeybee (Apis mellifera) royal jelly Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 19, Issue 5, August 2005, Pages 645-651. L.A. Salazar-Olivo, V. Paz-González

Major royal jelly protein 3 modulates immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Life Sciences, Volume 73, Issue 16, 5 September 2003, Pages 2029-2045. Iwao Okamoto, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Toshio Kunikata, Keizo Kohno, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto




I.N. Extreme Energy ingredients™

Hormone-Free High Glycoprotein Egg Albumin
Organic Cocoa
Hormone-Free Bovine Immunoglobulin Concentrate
Lo Han Guo
Coconut Oil
Betain Anhydrous (TMG)
Ecklonia Cava Extract
Papain
Organic Turmeric
Lycopene
Co Q10 ubiquinone, non-fermented
Calcium D-Glucarate
Royal Jelly

Hormone-Free Egg Albumin

Hormone-free egg albumin, or egg white, is a cholesterol-free food that provides over 40 different proteins, forming amino acids essential to the human body. Egg albumin is highly recognized by the body - albumin is also the most abundant plasma protein in our blood, and serves an important osmotic function, preventing the water in blood from moving into the interstitial fluid. Egg albumin is also a slow release glycoprotein, which prevents kidney stress, and has been found to soften the skin when taken internally. Ovalbumin, which makes up approximately 60% of the total protein of egg albumin, also chelates potentially harmful heavy metals in your system and prevents them from being absorbed.

Selected Studies:

The basic amino-acids of crystalline egg-ablumin. Biochem J. 1932;26(4):1101-6. Bradford Vicery, H. & Shore, S.

The complete amino-acid sequence of hen ovalbumin. European Journal of Biochemistry 115(2): 335. Nisbet AD, Saundry RH, Moir AJG, Fothergill LA, Fothergill JE (1981).

Medical Biochemistry, 2d edition, p 59. Dominiczak M, Baynes J. Publisher: Mobsy El Sevier (2005). ISBN: 978-0-323-05371-6.

Organic Cocoa

Our organic cocoa powder is ground from the seeds of the cacao tree. Scientific research has found cocoa to be an effective antioxidant, as well as providing neurotransmitters that increase mental alertness, focus, and happiness.

In addition, several compounds found in cocoa promote healthy heart function and help degrade atherosclerotic plaque that can build up in arteries and deprive organs and tissues of essential blood if left untreated. Finally, the arginine present in cocoa, which is the precursor for nitric oxide, helps accelerates recovery time and decrease blood pressure.

Selected Studies:

Enzymatic function of nitric oxide synthases. Cardiovascular Research43 (3): 521–531 REVIEW. Andrew, P.J.; Myer, B. (August 15 1999).

L-Arginine and hypertension. Journal of Nutrition134 (10 Suppl): 2807S-2811S REVIEW. Gokce, N.. (October 2004).

Exogenous L-arginine ameliorates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and renal damage in rats. Hypertension52 (6): 1084–1090. Rajapakse, N.W.; et al. (December 2008).

Arginine supplementation and wound healing. Nutrition in Clinical Practice20 (13): 52–61 REVIEW. Stechmiller, J.K.; et al. (February 2005).

Arginine physiology and its implication for wound healing. Wound Repair and Regeneration11 (6): 419–423 REVIEW. Witte, M.B.; Barbul, A (Nov-Dec 2003).

Heart-healthy Compound In Chocolate Identified. ScienceDaily. University of California - Davis (2006, January 20).

Hormone-Free Bovine Immunoglobulin Concentrate

Immunoglobulins are antibodies – bioactive proteins that your immune system uses to fight against intruding viruses and bacteria. Over 60 clinical studies have been published on the therapeutic effects of Immunoglobulins. The hormone-free immunoglobulin concentrate in I.N. Extreme Energy is similar to the colostrum found in breast milk, serving both as a supply of high-quality, absorptive protein and as an immune booster. It delivers antibodies to your gut where they fight against disease-causing organisms and inflammation, allowing your body more energy for other tasks. Unlike antibiotics, which destroy both good and bad bacteria, immunoglobulins only work against the bad bacteria, for optimal immune health.

Immunoglobulins have also been shown to help improve liver function, and reduce LDL cholesterol (the kind associated with heart disease)while keeping HDL, the "good" cholesterol, levels constant.

Selected Studies:

Dietary plasma proteins modulate the immune response of diffuse GALT. J Nutr Vol 138 pp 533. Perez Bosque et al., 2008.

Dietary plasma protein affects the immune response. J Nutr 134 pp 2667. Perez Bosque et al., 2004.

Spray-dried animal plasma prevents the effects of SEB on intestinal barrier function in rats. J Nutr 196 pp 2838 2843. Perez-Bosque et al.

The equivalency of Plasma and Ig in Affecting Growth. J Anim Sci 83 pp 2876. Pierce et al 2005.

Effects of bovine serum concentrate on children. EJCN AOP 14 Feb 2007. Begin et al 2007.

Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. Nature Med 12 pp 1365 1371. Brenchley et al 2006.

Alteration of somatotropic function by proinflammatory cytokines. J Anim Sci 82 pp E100. Frost and Lang 2004.

Effect of animal plasma proteins on intestinal damage and recovery. J Nutr Biochem Vol 18 pp 778 to 784. Moon et al 2007.

Coconut oil

Naturally derived from the coconut, coconut oil is a proven antioxidant. It contains significant quantities of monolauric acid – also found in human breast milk – which boosts immunity against microbial infections and viruses.

The majority of the fats provided by coconut oil are medium chain triglycerides, which are easily digested, absorbed and utilized by the body, proving an especially beneficial energy source to athletes. They have been shown to posses thermogenic (fat burning) properties, and may enhance endurance in athletes, though the studies are not conclusive.

Selected Studies:

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids 44 (7): 593–601. Assunção, ML (July 2009).

Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats Food Chemistry, Volume 99, Issue 2, 2006, Pages 260-266. K.G. Nevin, T. Rajamohan.

Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36, 950 –962. Bach, A.C. and Babayan, V.K. (1982).

Thermogenesis in man during overfeeding with medium chain triglycerides. Metabolism 38, 641– 648. Hill, J.O., Peters, J.C., Yang, D., Sharp, T., Kaler, M., Abumarad, N.N., and Greene, H.L. (1989).

The role of medium-chain triglycerides in exercise. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 6, 121–133. Berning, J.R. (1996).

Effects of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO and endurance in runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26, 81– 88. Muoio, D.H., Leddy, J.J., Horvath, P.J., Awad, A.B., and Pendergast, D.R. (1992).

Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 287–293. Lambert, E.V., Speechly, D.P., Dennis, S.C., and Noakes, T.D. (1994).

Luo Han Guo

Luo Han Guo is a fruit native to southern China and is used as a low calorie sweetener and medicine. It is also known as the longevity fruit, and is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to help treat chronic lung ailments and increase lifespan, amongst other things. Scientific research suggests that it is an antioxidant and may help prevent cancer. It may also prove effective in helping to treat diabetes and obesity.

Selected Studies:

Antioxidant property of fructus momordicae extract. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 1996; 40 (6): 1111-1121. Shi H, et al.

Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds. Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1309-1316. Konoshima T and Takasaki M.

Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Supplement 1997; 27: 59-67. Katiyar SK and Mukhtar H.

Trimethylglycine (TMG):

TMG, also known as betaine, is an organic compound found in food such as beets, quinoa and spinach, and is essential for human well being. TMG helps to stabilize protein and prevent it from breaking down, playing an anabolic role in the body. It also serves as a methyl donor, working to normalize the efficiency of methylation/sulfation pathways, and is required for mitochondrial protein and nucleic acid synthesis. It maintains cellular replication, liver function and helps detoxify cells from certain substances. TMG is critical to protect cells from hyperosmotic stress, and assists in cell volume regulation.

While TMG supplementation has been proven to increase lean muscle mass and decrease body fat in livestock and is widely used in the industry, few studies have been done on humans. More comprehensive studies are necessary, though a ‘highly significant’ negative association between TMG levels in the blood and obesity has already been established (the higher your percentage of body fat, the lower your plasma TMG concentration).

Select Studies:

The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Clinical Biochemistry, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 March 2010. Michael Lever, Sandy Slow.

N-trimethylglycine (betaine) transport is critical to protect HEPG2 cells from hyperosmotic stress. Gastroenterology, Volume 108, Issue 4, Supplement 3, April 1995, Page A1040. JC Bucuvalas, JA Bezerra, C. Schmidt, CE Burnham.

Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women. J Nutr 2008;138:914–20. Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Nygård O, Bleie Ø, Ueland PM.

Betaine Supplementation and Blood Lipids: Fact or Artifact? Nutr Rev 2006;64:77–9. Szegedi SS, Castro CC, Koutmos M, Garrow TA. Betaine-homocysteine S-Zeisel SH.

Methyl donor supplementation prevents transgenerational amplification of obesity. Int J Obesity 2008;32:1373–9. Waterland RA, Travisano M, Tahiliani KG, Rached MT, Mirza S.

Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenic enzyme activities and fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in nishing pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2008;140:36575. Huang QC, Xu ZR, Han XY, Han XY, Li WF.

Ecklonia Cava

Naturally derived from a species of brown algae found off the coast of Korea, ecklonia cava is a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, serving to scavenge free radicals, chelate metals and donate electrons. It is a neuroprotective, potentially enhancing memory by increasing neurotransmitter levels. Ecklonia cava also has anti-bacterial properties, and is believed to function in wound healing processes, cell wall construction and vascular health.

Selected Studies:

Antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of an enzymatic hydrolysate from brown alga, Ecklonia cava. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 44, Issue 7, July 2006, Pages 1065-1074. Yasantha Athukorala, Kil-Nam Kim, You-Jin Jeon

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seaweed, Ecklonia cava. Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 136, Supplement 1, October 2008, Page S598. Yun Beom Kim, Young Gun Moon, Moon Soo Heo

Ecklonia cava ethanolic extracts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV2 microglia via the MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 47, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 410-417. Won-Kyo Jung et al.

Phlorotannins in Ecklonia cava extract inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity. Life Sciences, Volume 79, Issue 15, 5 September 2006, Pages 1436-1443. Moon-Moo Kim, Quang Van Ta, Eresha Mendis, Niranjan Rajapakse, Won-Kyo Jung, Hee-Guk Byun, You-Jin Jeon, Se-Kwon Kim

Antioxidant Potential of Ecklonia cava on Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging, Metal Chelating, Reducing Power and Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition. Food Science and Technology International, Feb 2006; 12: 27 - 38.Mahinda Senevirathne, Soo-Hyun Kim, Nalin Siriwardhana, Jin-Hwan Ha, Ki-Wan Lee, and You-Jin Jeon

Antioxidative Properties of Brown Algae Polyphenolics and Their Perspectives as Chemopreventive Agents Against Vascular Risk Factors. Arch Pharm Res Vol 26, No 4, 286-293, 2003.Keejung Kang, Yongju Park, Hye Jeong Hwang, Seong Ho Kim, Jeong Gu Lee1, and Hyeon-Cheol Shin

Protective effect of Ecklonia cava enzymatic extracts on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage. Process Biochemistry, Volume 41, Issue 12, December 2006, Pages 2393-2401. Kil-Nam Kim, Soo-Jin Heo, Choon Bok Song, Jehee Lee, Moon-Soo Heo, In-Kyu Yeo, Kyoung Ah Kang, Jin Won Hyun, You-Jin Jeon

Improvement of Memory by Dieckol and Phlorofucofuroeckol in Ethanol-Treated Mice: Possible Involvement of the Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase.Arch Pharm Res Vol 28, No 6, 691-698, 2005. Chang-Seon Myung, Hyeon-Cheol Shin1, Hai Ying Bao, Soo Jeong Yeo, Bong Ho Lee, and Jong Seong Kang.

Papain

Papain, naturally derived from the papaya fruit, is a cysteine protease hydrolase enzyme that possesses anti-inflammatory qualities. Its ability to hydrolyze large proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids assists in the digestion of proteins. In this way, papain improves the assimilation of both the egg white protein and the bovine immunoglobulin protein. Papain has also been used to treat edema, ulcers, and to help accelerate wound healing.

Selected studies:

Emerging roles for cysteine proteases in human biology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 1997. 59:63–88. Harold A. Chapman, Richard J. Riese, and Guo-Ping Shi.

Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 46, Issue 7, July 2008, Pages 2384-2389. Nor Suhada Anuar, Shafiyyah Solehah Zahari, Ibrahim Adham Taib, Mohammad Tariqur Rahman.

Role of proteolytic enzymes in biological regulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:3825– 32. Neurath H, Walsh KA. 1976. Alignment/phylogeny of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases. J. Mol Biol. Berti PJ, Storer AC. 1995.

Neutral endopeptidase modulates neurogenic inflammation. Eur. Resp. J. 4:745–54. Nadel JA. 1991.

Organic Turmeric

Turmeric is a medicine and spice made from the root of the turmeric plant, native to tropical South Asia. It has been used for centuries in South Asian cooking and Ayurvedic medicine, where it is believed to have beneficial antiseptic, antibacterial and digestive properties and is used as a blood purifier, amongst other applications.

Scientific research has shown it to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, as well as the ability to selectively kill a wide range of tumor cells. Turmeric has been shown to increase glutathione and SOD levels significantly in heart and liver tissues depleted by inflammation. Turmeric is also currently being investigated as a treatment for Alzheimer’s.

Selected Studies:

Role of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 43, Issue 4, 15 August 2007, Pages 568-580. Santosh K. Sandur, Haruyo Ichikawa, Manoj K. Pandey, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Bokyung Sung, Gautam Sethi, Bharat B. Aggarwal

Curcumin induces the degradation of cyclin E expression through ubiquitin-dependent pathway and up-regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 in multiple human tumor cell lines. Biochemical Pharmacology, Volume 73, Issue 7, 1 April 2007, Pages 1024-1032. Bharat B. Aggarwal, Sanjeev Banerjee, Uddalak Bharadwaj, Bokyung Sung, Shishir Shishodia, Gautam Sethi

Immunomodulatory effects of curcumin: In-vivo. International Immunopharmacology, Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2008, Pages 688-700. Ch. Varalakshmi, A. Mubarak Ali, B.V.V. Pardhasaradhi, Raghvendra M. Srivastava, Sarvjeet Singh, Ashok Khar

Role of phenolic O-H and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1 September 2003, Pages 475-484. K. Indira Priyadarsini, Dilip K. Maity, G. H. Naik, M. Sudheer Kumar, M. K. Unnikrishnan, J. G. Satav, Hari Moha

Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: Evidence of its antioxidant property. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 3 April 2010. Suresh R Naik, Vishnu N Thakare, Snehal R Patil

Co Q10

Coenzyme CoQ10 (also called ubiquinone) is a naturally occurring nutrient found in some vegetables, meat and fish. From age 20 onwards, CoQ10 levels in the body typically decrease, and decreased levels may contribute to the loss of cellular function that accompanies aging. CoQ10 is essential for your cells to generate energy: it is a vital component of the electron transport chain, necessary for cellular respiration, and supplementation may help improve athletic performance by decreasing fatigue and recovery time, though further studies are needed. CoQ10 also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect the cell membrane and prevent DNA damage. It has been shown in some studies to increase lifespan. It also supports healthy heart function and helps prevent hypertension (high blood pressure), especially important for the endurance athlete.

Selected Studies:

Antifatigue effects of coenzyme Q10 during physical fatigue. Nutrition. Volume 24, Issue 4, April 2008, Pages 293-299. Mizuno, K., M. Tanaka, et al.

Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials. J Human Hypertension. 21: 297-306, 2007. Rosenfeldt FL, Haas SJ, Krum H, Hadj A, Ng K, Leong J-Y, Watts GF.

Coenzyme Q-10 and Lifespan Extension. Advances in Anti-Aging Medicine. 1 (1): 205–215. Coles L, Harris S (1996).

Coenzyme Q supplementation protects from age-related DNA double-strand breaks and increases lifespan in rats fed on a PUFA-rich diet. Exp Gerontol. 39 (2): 189–94. Quiles JL, Ochoa JJ, Huertas JR, Mataix J (2004).

Age-related changes in the lipid compositions of rat and human tissues. Lipids 24 (7): 579–584. Kalén, A.; Appelkvist, E. L.; Dallner, G. (1989).

Biosynthesis, bioproduction and novel roles of ubiquinone. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 94, Issue 6, December 2002, Pages 511-517. Makoto Kawamukai.

Tissue coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) and protein concentrations over the life span of the laboratory rat. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 32, Issues 2-3, November 1985, Pages 267-281. Robert E. Beyer et al.

Lycopene

Lycopene is a carotenoid found in tomatoes. It is a proven antioxidant that may significantly lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disorders and certain respiratory and other types of cancers. It is also involved in enhancing cellular function by protecting DNA and strengthening cell membranes (the ‘walls’ of cells) and keeping cells well hydrated – especially important for endurance athletes, who need to fight to keep their cells adequately hydrated over extended periods of activity. Lycopene may also stimulate the body’s own production of potent antioxidants GSH and SOD.

Selected Studies:

Potent antioxidative activity of lycopene: A potential role in scavenging hypochlorous acid. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 49, Issue 2, 15 July 2010, Pages 205-213. Subramaniam Pennathur, Dhiman Maitra, Jaeman Byun, Inga Sliskovic, Ibrahim Abdulhamid, Ghassan M. Saed, Michael P. Diamond, Husam M. Abu-Soud

Dietary uptake of lycopene protects human cells from singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide – ROS components from cigarette smoke  Original Research Article Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 64, Issues 2-3, 15 November 2001, Pages 176-178. Fritz Böhm, Ruth Edge, Marc Burke, T. G. Truscott.

The role of cellular hydration in the regulation of cell function, review article. Biochem. J. (1996) 313, 697–710. Dieter Haussinger.

Tomato lycopene and its role in human health and chronic diseases. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 163:739–744; 2000. Agarwal, S.; Rao, A. V.

Effect of short term supplementation of tomatoes on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation type-II diabetes. Indian J. Clin. Biochem. 22:95–98; 2007. Subhash, K.; Bose, C.; Agrawal, B. K.

Protective effect of lycopene on lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage in cell culture. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 383:56–59; 2000. Matos, H. R.; Di Mascio, P.; Medeiros, M. H.

Calcium D-Glutarate

Calcium D-Glutarate is the calcium salt of D-glucaric acid, made in small amounts in the body and found in fruits and vegetables like apples, oranges, broccoli and brussel sprouts. It has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-cancer properties, and is helpful in cellular detoxification, aiding to clear the body of metabolic wastes and toxins, and balance hormones and metabolism. It may also help lower LDL cholesterol.

Selected Studies:

Mechanism of growth inhibition of mammary carcinomas by glucarate and the glucarate:retinoid combination. Anticancer Res 1993; 13:2095-2100. Webb TE, Abou-Issa H, Stromberg PC, et al.

Cholesterol lowering effects of dietary D-glucarate. FASEB 1991;5:A930. Walaszek Z, Hanausek-Walaszek M, Adams AK, Sherman U.

Calcium glucarate as a chemopreventive agent in breast cancer. Isr J Med Sci 1995;31:101-105. Heerdt , AS , Young CW, Borgen PI.

Metabolism, uptake, and excretion of a D-glucaric acid salt and its potential use in cancer prevention. Cancer Detect Prev 1997;21:178-190. Walaszek Z, Szemraj J, Narog M, et al.

Dietary glucarate as anti-promoter of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 1986;7:1463-1466. Walaszek Z, Hanausek-Walaszek M, Minto JP, Webb TE.

Mechanism of growth inhibition of mammary carcinomas by glucarate and the glucarate:retinoid combination. Anticancer Res 1993;13:2095-2100. Webb TE, Abou-Issa H, Stromberg PC, et al.

Royal Jelly

Royal jelly is a food made by workers bees but consumed only by the queen bee. While the queen and the workers possess the same genes and anatomy, on a diet of royal jelly the queen grows one and a half times larger than the workers and lives up to 40 times longer. Royal jelly has been found to possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and immune boosting properties, amongst others.

Selected Studies:

Trace and mineral elements in royal jelly and homeostatic effects. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 19, Issues 2-3, 2 December 2005, Pages 183-189. Andreas Stocker, Peter Schramel, Antonius Kettrup, Eberhard Bengsch

Analysis of anti-allergic function of royal jelly. Natural Med. 55, 174 – 180. Kataoka, M., Arai, N., Taniguchi, Y., Kohno, K., Iwaki, K., Ikeda, M., Kurimoto, M., 2001.

The antioxidant properties of Royal jelly. Jpn. Pharmacol. Ther. 24, 1463 – 1471. Kuwahara, Y., Hori, Y., Yoneta, T., Ikeda, Y., 1996. [in Japanese].

Antiutumor effect of royal jelly. Folia Pharmacol. Japon 89, 73 – 80. Tamura, T., Fujii, A., Kumoyama, N., 1987. [in Japanese].

Royal Jelly prolongs the life span of C3H/HeJ mice: correlation with reduced DNA damage. Experimental Gerontology, Volume 38, Issue 9, 1 September 2003, Pages 965-969. Shin-ichiro Inoue, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Shimpei Ushio, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto.

Screening of biological activities present in honeybee (Apis mellifera) royal jelly Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 19, Issue 5, August 2005, Pages 645-651. L.A. Salazar-Olivo, V. Paz-González

Major royal jelly protein 3 modulates immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Life Sciences, Volume 73, Issue 16, 5 September 2003, Pages 2029-2045. Iwao Okamoto, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Toshio Kunikata, Keizo Kohno, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto


I.N. Extreme Energy ingredients™

Hormone-Free High Glycoprotein Egg Albumin
Organic Cocoa
Hormone-Free Bovine Immunoglobulin Concentrate
Lo Han Guo
Coconut Oil
Betain Anhydrous (TMG)
Ecklonia Cava Extract
Papain
Organic Turmeric
Lycopene
Co Q10 ubiquinone, non-fermented
Calcium D-Glucarate
Royal Jelly

Hormone-Free Egg Albumin

Hormone-free egg albumin, or egg white, is a cholesterol-free food that provides over 40 different proteins, forming amino acids essential to the human body. Egg albumin is highly recognized by the body - albumin is also the most abundant plasma protein in our blood, and serves an important osmotic function, preventing the water in blood from moving into the interstitial fluid. Egg albumin is also a slow release glycoprotein, which prevents kidney stress, and has been found to soften the skin when taken internally. Ovalbumin, which makes up approximately 60% of the total protein of egg albumin, also chelates potentially harmful heavy metals in your system and prevents them from being absorbed.

Selected Studies:

The basic amino-acids of crystalline egg-ablumin. Biochem J. 1932;26(4):1101-6. Bradford Vicery, H. & Shore, S.

The complete amino-acid sequence of hen ovalbumin. European Journal of Biochemistry 115(2): 335. Nisbet AD, Saundry RH, Moir AJG, Fothergill LA, Fothergill JE (1981).

Medical Biochemistry, 2d edition, p 59. Dominiczak M, Baynes J. Publisher: Mobsy El Sevier (2005). ISBN: 978-0-323-05371-6.

Organic Cocoa

Our organic cocoa powder is ground from the seeds of the cacao tree. Scientific research has found cocoa to be an effective antioxidant, as well as providing neurotransmitters that increase mental alertness, focus, and happiness.

In addition, several compounds found in cocoa promote healthy heart function and help degrade atherosclerotic plaque that can build up in arteries and deprive organs and tissues of essential blood if left untreated. Finally, the arginine present in cocoa, which is the precursor for nitric oxide, helps accelerates recovery time and decrease blood pressure.

Selected Studies:

Enzymatic function of nitric oxide synthases. Cardiovascular Research43 (3): 521–531 REVIEW. Andrew, P.J.; Myer, B. (August 15 1999).

L-Arginine and hypertension. Journal of Nutrition134 (10 Suppl): 2807S-2811S REVIEW. Gokce, N.. (October 2004).

Exogenous L-arginine ameliorates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and renal damage in rats. Hypertension52 (6): 1084–1090. Rajapakse, N.W.; et al. (December 2008).

Arginine supplementation and wound healing. Nutrition in Clinical Practice20 (13): 52–61 REVIEW. Stechmiller, J.K.; et al. (February 2005).

Arginine physiology and its implication for wound healing. Wound Repair and Regeneration11 (6): 419–423 REVIEW. Witte, M.B.; Barbul, A (Nov-Dec 2003).

Heart-healthy Compound In Chocolate Identified. ScienceDaily. University of California - Davis (2006, January 20).

Hormone-Free Bovine Immunoglobulin Concentrate

Immunoglobulins are antibodies – bioactive proteins that your immune system uses to fight against intruding viruses and bacteria. Over 60 clinical studies have been published on the therapeutic effects of Immunoglobulins. The hormone-free immunoglobulin concentrate in I.N. Extreme Energy is similar to the colostrum found in breast milk, serving both as a supply of high-quality, absorptive protein and as an immune booster. It delivers antibodies to your gut where they fight against disease-causing organisms and inflammation, allowing your body more energy for other tasks. Unlike antibiotics, which destroy both good and bad bacteria, immunoglobulins only work against the bad bacteria, for optimal immune health.

Immunoglobulins have also been shown to help improve liver function, and reduce LDL cholesterol (the kind associated with heart disease)while keeping HDL, the "good" cholesterol, levels constant.

Selected Studies:

Dietary plasma proteins modulate the immune response of diffuse GALT. J Nutr Vol 138 pp 533. Perez Bosque et al., 2008.

Dietary plasma protein affects the immune response. J Nutr 134 pp 2667. Perez Bosque et al., 2004.

Spray-dried animal plasma prevents the effects of SEB on intestinal barrier function in rats. J Nutr 196 pp 2838 2843. Perez-Bosque et al.

The equivalency of Plasma and Ig in Affecting Growth. J Anim Sci 83 pp 2876. Pierce et al 2005.

Effects of bovine serum concentrate on children. EJCN AOP 14 Feb 2007. Begin et al 2007.

Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. Nature Med 12 pp 1365 1371. Brenchley et al 2006.

Alteration of somatotropic function by proinflammatory cytokines. J Anim Sci 82 pp E100. Frost and Lang 2004.

Effect of animal plasma proteins on intestinal damage and recovery. J Nutr Biochem Vol 18 pp 778 to 784. Moon et al 2007.

Coconut oil

Naturally derived from the coconut, coconut oil is a proven antioxidant. It contains significant quantities of monolauric acid – also found in human breast milk – which boosts immunity against microbial infections and viruses.

The majority of the fats provided by coconut oil are medium chain triglycerides, which are easily digested, absorbed and utilized by the body, proving an especially beneficial energy source to athletes. They have been shown to posses thermogenic (fat burning) properties, and may enhance endurance in athletes, though the studies are not conclusive.

Selected Studies:

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids 44 (7): 593–601. Assunção, ML (July 2009).

Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats Food Chemistry, Volume 99, Issue 2, 2006, Pages 260-266. K.G. Nevin, T. Rajamohan.

Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36, 950 –962. Bach, A.C. and Babayan, V.K. (1982).

Thermogenesis in man during overfeeding with medium chain triglycerides. Metabolism 38, 641– 648. Hill, J.O., Peters, J.C., Yang, D., Sharp, T., Kaler, M., Abumarad, N.N., and Greene, H.L. (1989).

The role of medium-chain triglycerides in exercise. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 6, 121–133. Berning, J.R. (1996).

Effects of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO and endurance in runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26, 81– 88. Muoio, D.H., Leddy, J.J., Horvath, P.J., Awad, A.B., and Pendergast, D.R. (1992).

Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 287–293. Lambert, E.V., Speechly, D.P., Dennis, S.C., and Noakes, T.D. (1994).

Luo Han Guo

Luo Han Guo is a fruit native to southern China and is used as a low calorie sweetener and medicine. It is also known as the longevity fruit, and is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to help treat chronic lung ailments and increase lifespan, amongst other things. Scientific research suggests that it is an antioxidant and may help prevent cancer. It may also prove effective in helping to treat diabetes and obesity.

Selected Studies:

Antioxidant property of fructus momordicae extract. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 1996; 40 (6): 1111-1121. Shi H, et al.

Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds. Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1309-1316. Konoshima T and Takasaki M.

Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Supplement 1997; 27: 59-67. Katiyar SK and Mukhtar H.

Trimethylglycine (TMG):

TMG, also known as betaine, is an organic compound found in food such as beets, quinoa and spinach, and is essential for human well being. TMG helps to stabilize protein and prevent it from breaking down, playing an anabolic role in the body. It also serves as a methyl donor, working to normalize the efficiency of methylation/sulfation pathways, and is required for mitochondrial protein and nucleic acid synthesis. It maintains cellular replication, liver function and helps detoxify cells from certain substances. TMG is critical to protect cells from hyperosmotic stress, and assists in cell volume regulation.

While TMG supplementation has been proven to increase lean muscle mass and decrease body fat in livestock and is widely used in the industry, few studies have been done on humans. More comprehensive studies are necessary, though a ‘highly significant’ negative association between TMG levels in the blood and obesity has already been established (the higher your percentage of body fat, the lower your plasma TMG concentration).

Select Studies:

The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Clinical Biochemistry, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 March 2010. Michael Lever, Sandy Slow.

N-trimethylglycine (betaine) transport is critical to protect HEPG2 cells from hyperosmotic stress. Gastroenterology, Volume 108, Issue 4, Supplement 3, April 1995, Page A1040. JC Bucuvalas, JA Bezerra, C. Schmidt, CE Burnham.

Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women. J Nutr 2008;138:914–20. Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Nygård O, Bleie Ø, Ueland PM.

Betaine Supplementation and Blood Lipids: Fact or Artifact? Nutr Rev 2006;64:77–9. Szegedi SS, Castro CC, Koutmos M, Garrow TA. Betaine-homocysteine S-Zeisel SH.

Methyl donor supplementation prevents transgenerational amplification of obesity. Int J Obesity 2008;32:1373–9. Waterland RA, Travisano M, Tahiliani KG, Rached MT, Mirza S.

Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenic enzyme activities and fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in nishing pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2008;140:36575. Huang QC, Xu ZR, Han XY, Han XY, Li WF.

Ecklonia Cava

Naturally derived from a species of brown algae found off the coast of Korea, ecklonia cava is a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, serving to scavenge free radicals, chelate metals and donate electrons. It is a neuroprotective, potentially enhancing memory by increasing neurotransmitter levels. Ecklonia cava also has anti-bacterial properties, and is believed to function in wound healing processes, cell wall construction and vascular health.

Selected Studies:

Antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of an enzymatic hydrolysate from brown alga, Ecklonia cava. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 44, Issue 7, July 2006, Pages 1065-1074. Yasantha Athukorala, Kil-Nam Kim, You-Jin Jeon

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seaweed, Ecklonia cava. Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 136, Supplement 1, October 2008, Page S598. Yun Beom Kim, Young Gun Moon, Moon Soo Heo

Ecklonia cava ethanolic extracts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV2 microglia via the MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 47, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 410-417. Won-Kyo Jung et al.

Phlorotannins in Ecklonia cava extract inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity. Life Sciences, Volume 79, Issue 15, 5 September 2006, Pages 1436-1443. Moon-Moo Kim, Quang Van Ta, Eresha Mendis, Niranjan Rajapakse, Won-Kyo Jung, Hee-Guk Byun, You-Jin Jeon, Se-Kwon Kim

Antioxidant Potential of Ecklonia cava on Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging, Metal Chelating, Reducing Power and Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition. Food Science and Technology International, Feb 2006; 12: 27 - 38.Mahinda Senevirathne, Soo-Hyun Kim, Nalin Siriwardhana, Jin-Hwan Ha, Ki-Wan Lee, and You-Jin Jeon

Antioxidative Properties of Brown Algae Polyphenolics and Their Perspectives as Chemopreventive Agents Against Vascular Risk Factors. Arch Pharm Res Vol 26, No 4, 286-293, 2003.Keejung Kang, Yongju Park, Hye Jeong Hwang, Seong Ho Kim, Jeong Gu Lee1, and Hyeon-Cheol Shin

Protective effect of Ecklonia cava enzymatic extracts on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage. Process Biochemistry, Volume 41, Issue 12, December 2006, Pages 2393-2401. Kil-Nam Kim, Soo-Jin Heo, Choon Bok Song, Jehee Lee, Moon-Soo Heo, In-Kyu Yeo, Kyoung Ah Kang, Jin Won Hyun, You-Jin Jeon

Improvement of Memory by Dieckol and Phlorofucofuroeckol in Ethanol-Treated Mice: Possible Involvement of the Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase.Arch Pharm Res Vol 28, No 6, 691-698, 2005. Chang-Seon Myung, Hyeon-Cheol Shin1, Hai Ying Bao, Soo Jeong Yeo, Bong Ho Lee, and Jong Seong Kang.

Papain

Papain, naturally derived from the papaya fruit, is a cysteine protease hydrolase enzyme that possesses anti-inflammatory qualities. Its ability to hydrolyze large proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids assists in the digestion of proteins. In this way, papain improves the assimilation of both the egg white protein and the bovine immunoglobulin protein. Papain has also been used to treat edema, ulcers, and to help accelerate wound healing.

Selected studies:

Emerging roles for cysteine proteases in human biology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 1997. 59:63–88. Harold A. Chapman, Richard J. Riese, and Guo-Ping Shi.

Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 46, Issue 7, July 2008, Pages 2384-2389. Nor Suhada Anuar, Shafiyyah Solehah Zahari, Ibrahim Adham Taib, Mohammad Tariqur Rahman.

Role of proteolytic enzymes in biological regulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:3825– 32. Neurath H, Walsh KA. 1976. Alignment/phylogeny of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases. J. Mol Biol. Berti PJ, Storer AC. 1995.

Neutral endopeptidase modulates neurogenic inflammation. Eur. Resp. J. 4:745–54. Nadel JA. 1991.

Organic Turmeric

Turmeric is a medicine and spice made from the root of the turmeric plant, native to tropical South Asia. It has been used for centuries in South Asian cooking and Ayurvedic medicine, where it is believed to have beneficial antiseptic, antibacterial and digestive properties and is used as a blood purifier, amongst other applications.

Scientific research has shown it to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, as well as the ability to selectively kill a wide range of tumor cells. Turmeric has been shown to increase glutathione and SOD levels significantly in heart and liver tissues depleted by inflammation. Turmeric is also currently being investigated as a treatment for Alzheimer’s.

Selected Studies:

Role of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 43, Issue 4, 15 August 2007, Pages 568-580. Santosh K. Sandur, Haruyo Ichikawa, Manoj K. Pandey, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Bokyung Sung, Gautam Sethi, Bharat B. Aggarwal

Curcumin induces the degradation of cyclin E expression through ubiquitin-dependent pathway and up-regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 in multiple human tumor cell lines. Biochemical Pharmacology, Volume 73, Issue 7, 1 April 2007, Pages 1024-1032. Bharat B. Aggarwal, Sanjeev Banerjee, Uddalak Bharadwaj, Bokyung Sung, Shishir Shishodia, Gautam Sethi

Immunomodulatory effects of curcumin: In-vivo. International Immunopharmacology, Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2008, Pages 688-700. Ch. Varalakshmi, A. Mubarak Ali, B.V.V. Pardhasaradhi, Raghvendra M. Srivastava, Sarvjeet Singh, Ashok Khar

Role of phenolic O-H and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1 September 2003, Pages 475-484. K. Indira Priyadarsini, Dilip K. Maity, G. H. Naik, M. Sudheer Kumar, M. K. Unnikrishnan, J. G. Satav, Hari Moha

Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: Evidence of its antioxidant property. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 3 April 2010. Suresh R Naik, Vishnu N Thakare, Snehal R Patil

Co Q10

Coenzyme CoQ10 (also called ubiquinone) is a naturally occurring nutrient found in some vegetables, meat and fish. From age 20 onwards, CoQ10 levels in the body typically decrease, and decreased levels may contribute to the loss of cellular function that accompanies aging. CoQ10 is essential for your cells to generate energy: it is a vital component of the electron transport chain, necessary for cellular respiration, and supplementation may help improve athletic performance by decreasing fatigue and recovery time, though further studies are needed. CoQ10 also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect the cell membrane and prevent DNA damage. It has been shown in some studies to increase lifespan. It also supports healthy heart function and helps prevent hypertension (high blood pressure), especially important for the endurance athlete.

Selected Studies:

Antifatigue effects of coenzyme Q10 during physical fatigue. Nutrition. Volume 24, Issue 4, April 2008, Pages 293-299. Mizuno, K., M. Tanaka, et al.

Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials. J Human Hypertension. 21: 297-306, 2007. Rosenfeldt FL, Haas SJ, Krum H, Hadj A, Ng K, Leong J-Y, Watts GF.

Coenzyme Q-10 and Lifespan Extension. Advances in Anti-Aging Medicine. 1 (1): 205–215. Coles L, Harris S (1996).

Coenzyme Q supplementation protects from age-related DNA double-strand breaks and increases lifespan in rats fed on a PUFA-rich diet. Exp Gerontol. 39 (2): 189–94. Quiles JL, Ochoa JJ, Huertas JR, Mataix J (2004).

Age-related changes in the lipid compositions of rat and human tissues. Lipids 24 (7): 579–584. Kalén, A.; Appelkvist, E. L.; Dallner, G. (1989).

Biosynthesis, bioproduction and novel roles of ubiquinone. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 94, Issue 6, December 2002, Pages 511-517. Makoto Kawamukai.

Tissue coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) and protein concentrations over the life span of the laboratory rat. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 32, Issues 2-3, November 1985, Pages 267-281. Robert E. Beyer et al.

Lycopene

Lycopene is a carotenoid found in tomatoes. It is a proven antioxidant that may significantly lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disorders and certain respiratory and other types of cancers. It is also involved in enhancing cellular function by protecting DNA and strengthening cell membranes (the ‘walls’ of cells) and keeping cells well hydrated – especially important for endurance athletes, who need to fight to keep their cells adequately hydrated over extended periods of activity. Lycopene may also stimulate the body’s own production of potent antioxidants GSH and SOD.

Selected Studies:

Potent antioxidative activity of lycopene: A potential role in scavenging hypochlorous acid. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 49, Issue 2, 15 July 2010, Pages 205-213. Subramaniam Pennathur, Dhiman Maitra, Jaeman Byun, Inga Sliskovic, Ibrahim Abdulhamid, Ghassan M. Saed, Michael P. Diamond, Husam M. Abu-Soud

Dietary uptake of lycopene protects human cells from singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide – ROS components from cigarette smoke  Original Research Article Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 64, Issues 2-3, 15 November 2001, Pages 176-178. Fritz Böhm, Ruth Edge, Marc Burke, T. G. Truscott.

The role of cellular hydration in the regulation of cell function, review article. Biochem. J. (1996) 313, 697–710. Dieter Haussinger.

Tomato lycopene and its role in human health and chronic diseases. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 163:739–744; 2000. Agarwal, S.; Rao, A. V.

Effect of short term supplementation of tomatoes on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation type-II diabetes. Indian J. Clin. Biochem. 22:95–98; 2007. Subhash, K.; Bose, C.; Agrawal, B. K.

Protective effect of lycopene on lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage in cell culture. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 383:56–59; 2000. Matos, H. R.; Di Mascio, P.; Medeiros, M. H.

Calcium D-Glutarate

Calcium D-Glutarate is the calcium salt of D-glucaric acid, made in small amounts in the body and found in fruits and vegetables like apples, oranges, broccoli and brussel sprouts. It has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-cancer properties, and is helpful in cellular detoxification, aiding to clear the body of metabolic wastes and toxins, and balance hormones and metabolism. It may also help lower LDL cholesterol.

Selected Studies:

Mechanism of growth inhibition of mammary carcinomas by glucarate and the glucarate:retinoid combination. Anticancer Res 1993; 13:2095-2100. Webb TE, Abou-Issa H, Stromberg PC, et al.

Cholesterol lowering effects of dietary D-glucarate. FASEB 1991;5:A930. Walaszek Z, Hanausek-Walaszek M, Adams AK, Sherman U.

Calcium glucarate as a chemopreventive agent in breast cancer. Isr J Med Sci 1995;31:101-105. Heerdt , AS , Young CW, Borgen PI.

Metabolism, uptake, and excretion of a D-glucaric acid salt and its potential use in cancer prevention. Cancer Detect Prev 1997;21:178-190. Walaszek Z, Szemraj J, Narog M, et al.

Dietary glucarate as anti-promoter of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 1986;7:1463-1466. Walaszek Z, Hanausek-Walaszek M, Minto JP, Webb TE.

Mechanism of growth inhibition of mammary carcinomas by glucarate and the glucarate:retinoid combination. Anticancer Res 1993;13:2095-2100. Webb TE, Abou-Issa H, Stromberg PC, et al.

Royal Jelly

Royal jelly is a food made by workers bees but consumed only by the queen bee. While the queen and the workers possess the same genes and anatomy, on a diet of royal jelly the queen grows one and a half times larger than the workers and lives up to 40 times longer. Royal jelly has been found to possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and immune boosting properties, amongst others.

Selected Studies:

Trace and mineral elements in royal jelly and homeostatic effects. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 19, Issues 2-3, 2 December 2005, Pages 183-189. Andreas Stocker, Peter Schramel, Antonius Kettrup, Eberhard Bengsch

Analysis of anti-allergic function of royal jelly. Natural Med. 55, 174 – 180. Kataoka, M., Arai, N., Taniguchi, Y., Kohno, K., Iwaki, K., Ikeda, M., Kurimoto, M., 2001.

The antioxidant properties of Royal jelly. Jpn. Pharmacol. Ther. 24, 1463 – 1471. Kuwahara, Y., Hori, Y., Yoneta, T., Ikeda, Y., 1996. [in Japanese].

Antiutumor effect of royal jelly. Folia Pharmacol. Japon 89, 73 – 80. Tamura, T., Fujii, A., Kumoyama, N., 1987. [in Japanese].

Royal Jelly prolongs the life span of C3H/HeJ mice: correlation with reduced DNA damage. Experimental Gerontology, Volume 38, Issue 9, 1 September 2003, Pages 965-969. Shin-ichiro Inoue, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Shimpei Ushio, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto.

Screening of biological activities present in honeybee (Apis mellifera) royal jelly Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 19, Issue 5, August 2005, Pages 645-651. L.A. Salazar-Olivo, V. Paz-González

Major royal jelly protein 3 modulates immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Life Sciences, Volume 73, Issue 16, 5 September 2003, Pages 2029-2045. Iwao Okamoto, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Toshio Kunikata, Keizo Kohno, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto


I.N. Extreme Energy ingredients™

Hormone-Free High Glycoprotein Egg Albumin
100% Natural Vanilla Extract and Essence
Hormone-Free Bovine Immunoglobulin Concentrate
Lo Han Guo
Coconut Oil
Betain Anhydrous (TMG)
Resveratrol
Maqui Glisodine
Ecklonia Cava Extract
Papain
Organic Turmeric
Calcium D-Glucarate
Royal Jelly

Hormone-Free Egg Albumin

Hormone-free egg albumin, or egg white, is a cholesterol-free food that provides over 40 different proteins, forming amino acids essential to the human body. Egg albumin is highly recognized by the body - albumin is also the most abundant plasma protein in our blood, and serves an important osmotic function, preventing the water in blood from moving into the interstitial fluid. Egg albumin is also a slow release glycoprotein, which prevents kidney stress, and has been found to soften the skin when taken internally. Ovalbumin, which makes up approximately 60% of the total protein of egg albumin, also chelates potentially harmful heavy metals in your system and prevents them from being absorbed.

Selected Studies:

The basic amino-acids of crystalline egg-ablumin. Biochem J. 1932;26(4):1101-6. Bradford Vicery, H. & Shore, S.

The complete amino-acid sequence of hen ovalbumin. European Journal of Biochemistry 115(2): 335. Nisbet AD, Saundry RH, Moir AJG, Fothergill LA, Fothergill JE (1981).

Medical Biochemistry, 2d edition, p 59. Dominiczak M, Baynes J. Publisher: Mobsy El Sevier (2005). ISBN: 978-0-323-05371-6.

Hormone-Free Bovine Immunoglobulin Concentrate

Immunoglobulins are antibodies – bioactive proteins that your immune system uses to fight against intruding viruses and bacteria. Over 60 clinical studies have been published on the therapeutic effects of Immunoglobulins. The hormone-free immunoglobulin concentrate in I.N. Extreme Energy is similar to the colostrum found in breast milk, serving both as a supply of high-quality, absorptive protein and as an immune booster. It delivers antibodies to your gut where they fight against disease-causing organisms and inflammation, allowing your body more energy for other tasks. Unlike antibiotics, which destroy both good and bad bacteria, immunoglobulins only work against the bad bacteria, for optimal immune health.

Immunoglobulins have also been shown to help improve liver function, and reduce LDL cholesterol (the kind associated with heart disease)while keeping HDL, the "good" cholesterol, levels constant.

Selected Studies:

Dietary plasma proteins modulate the immune response of diffuse GALT. J Nutr Vol 138 pp 533. Perez Bosque et al., 2008.

Dietary plasma protein affects the immune response. J Nutr 134 pp 2667. Perez Bosque et al., 2004.

Spray-dried animal plasma prevents the effects of SEB on intestinal barrier function in rats. J Nutr 196 pp 2838 2843. Perez-Bosque et al.

The equivalency of Plasma and Ig in Affecting Growth. J Anim Sci 83 pp 2876. Pierce et al 2005.

Effects of bovine serum concentrate on children. EJCN AOP 14 Feb 2007. Begin et al 2007.

Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. Nature Med 12 pp 1365 1371. Brenchley et al 2006.

Alteration of somatotropic function by proinflammatory cytokines. J Anim Sci 82 pp E100. Frost and Lang 2004.

Effect of animal plasma proteins on intestinal damage and recovery. J Nutr Biochem Vol 18 pp 778 to 784. Moon et al 2007.

Coconut oil

Naturally derived from the coconut, coconut oil is a proven antioxidant. It contains significant quantities of monolauric acid – also found in human breast milk – which boosts immunity against microbial infections and viruses.

The majority of the fats provided by coconut oil are medium chain triglycerides, which are easily digested, absorbed and utilized by the body, proving an especially beneficial energy source to athletes. They have been shown to posses thermogenic (fat burning) properties, and may enhance endurance in athletes, though the studies are not conclusive.

Selected Studies:

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids 44 (7): 593–601. Assunção, ML (July 2009).

Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats Food Chemistry, Volume 99, Issue 2, 2006, Pages 260-266. K.G. Nevin, T. Rajamohan.

Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36, 950 –962. Bach, A.C. and Babayan, V.K. (1982).

Thermogenesis in man during overfeeding with medium chain triglycerides. Metabolism 38, 641– 648. Hill, J.O., Peters, J.C., Yang, D., Sharp, T., Kaler, M., Abumarad, N.N., and Greene, H.L. (1989).

The role of medium-chain triglycerides in exercise. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 6, 121–133. Berning, J.R. (1996).

Effects of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO and endurance in runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26, 81– 88. Muoio, D.H., Leddy, J.J., Horvath, P.J., Awad, A.B., and Pendergast, D.R. (1992).

Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 287–293. Lambert, E.V., Speechly, D.P., Dennis, S.C., and Noakes, T.D. (1994).

Luo Han Guo

Luo Han Guo is a fruit native to southern China and is used as a low calorie sweetener and medicine. It is also known as the longevity fruit, and is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to help treat chronic lung ailments and increase lifespan, amongst other things. Scientific research suggests that it is an antioxidant and may help prevent cancer. It may also prove effective in helping to treat diabetes and obesity.

Selected Studies:

Antioxidant property of fructus momordicae extract. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 1996; 40 (6): 1111-1121. Shi H, et al.

Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds. Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1309-1316. Konoshima T and Takasaki M.

Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Supplement 1997; 27: 59-67. Katiyar SK and Mukhtar H.

Trimethylglycine (TMG):

TMG, also known as betaine, is an organic compound found in food such as beets, quinoa and spinach, and is essential for human well being. TMG helps to stabilize protein and prevent it from breaking down, playing an anabolic role in the body. It also serves as a methyl donor, working to normalize the efficiency of methylation/sulfation pathways, and is required for mitochondrial protein and nucleic acid synthesis. It maintains cellular replication, liver function and helps detoxify cells from certain substances. TMG is critical to protect cells from hyperosmotic stress, and assists in cell volume regulation.

While TMG supplementation has been proven to increase lean muscle mass and decrease body fat in livestock and is widely used in the industry, few studies have been done on humans. More comprehensive studies are necessary, though a ‘highly significant’ negative association between TMG levels in the blood and obesity has already been established (the higher your percentage of body fat, the lower your plasma TMG concentration).

Select Studies:

The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Clinical Biochemistry, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 March 2010. Michael Lever, Sandy Slow.

N-trimethylglycine (betaine) transport is critical to protect HEPG2 cells from hyperosmotic stress. Gastroenterology, Volume 108, Issue 4, Supplement 3, April 1995, Page A1040. JC Bucuvalas, JA Bezerra, C. Schmidt, CE Burnham.

Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women. J Nutr 2008;138:914–20. Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Nygård O, Bleie Ø, Ueland PM.

Betaine Supplementation and Blood Lipids: Fact or Artifact? Nutr Rev 2006;64:77–9. Szegedi SS, Castro CC, Koutmos M, Garrow TA. Betaine-homocysteine S-Zeisel SH.

Methyl donor supplementation prevents transgenerational amplification of obesity. Int J Obesity 2008;32:1373–9. Waterland RA, Travisano M, Tahiliani KG, Rached MT, Mirza S.

Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenic enzyme activities and fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in nishing pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2008;140:36575. Huang QC, Xu ZR, Han XY, Han XY, Li WF.

Resveratrol:

Resveratrol is a powerful antioxidant found in many fruits, vegetables, and cocoa with unique capabilities to cross the blood-brain barrier to help protect your brain and nervous system. Studies show this protects cells from free radical damage, lower blood pressure, reduce risk of cancer, and improves heart health.

Recent studies also suggest resveratrol prevents your body from sphingosine kinase and phospholipase D, two molecules known to trigger inflammation. Prolonged inflammation has been linked to many chronic diseases.

El-Mowafy, AM, Salem, HA, Al-Gayyar, MM, El-Mesery, ME, & El-Azab, MF. (2011). Evaluation of renal protective effects of the green-tea (egcg) and red grape resveratrol: role of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Nat Prod Res., 25(8), 850-6. Anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol, curcumin and simvastatin in acute small intestinal inflammation. (2010). PLoS One., 5(12), 15099. Collin, D, & Et al., Initials. (2011). Endocytosis of resveratrol via lipid rafts and activation of downstream signaling pathways in cancer cells. Cancer Prev Res (Phila).

Kaminski, BM, & Et al., Initials. (2011). Phytochemicals resveratrol and sulforaphane as potential agents for enhancing the anti-tumor activities of conventional cancer therapies. . Curr Pharm Biotechnology. Araujo, JR, Goncalves, P, & Martel, F. (2011). Chemopreventive effect of dietary polyphenols in colorectal cancer cell lines. Nutr Res., 31(2), 77-87.

Natural Vanilla Extract and Essence:

Vanilla extract is a liquid form of vanilla spice concentrate derived from a fruit-bearing orchid. For centuries, vanilla was used as a topical remedy to treat wounds, heal snakebites, and prevent nausea.

Nearly 200 compounds make up vanilla’s distinct flavor, and many of those compounds have antioxidant and cancer-fighting properties. Studies have also shown vanilla to help reduce anxiety, improve skin tone, and boost metabolism, which may stimulate weight loss.

Sinha, Ak, Sharma, UK., & Sharma, N. (2008). A comprehensive review on vanilla flavor: extraction, isolation and quantification of vanillin and others constituents. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 59(4), 299-326.

Shyamala, BN, Naidu, MM, Sulochanamma, G, & Srinivas, P. (2007). Studies on the antioxidant activities of natural vanilla extract and its constituent compounds through in vitro models. I Agric Food Chem., 55(19), 7738-43.

Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis)

Maqui berries have been used for centuries by the indigenous population of Chile for their medicinal properties, particularly for digestive and cardiac disorders, inflammation and migraine. Maqui may help protect heart function and have antioxidant properties. Maqui also provides a source of natural minerals, including calcium, vitamin K and iron. Finally, maqui berries are a source of flavanoids, anthocyanins and polyphenols (see ‘Figs’ above).

Selected studies:

Antioxidant and cardioprotective activities of phenolic extracts from fruits of Chilean blackberry Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae), Maqui. Food Chemistry, Volume 107, Issue 2, 15 March 2008, Pages 820-829 Carlos L. Céspedes, Mohammed El-Hafidi, Natalia Pavon, Julio Alarcon

Juice and Phenolic Fractions of the Berry Aristotelia chilensis Inhibit LDL Oxidation in Vitro and Protect Human Endothelial Cells against Oxidative Stress. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50 (26), pp 7542–7547. Soledad Miranda-Rottmann, Augusto A. Aspillaga, Druso D. Pérez, Luis Vasquez, Alvaro L. F. Martinez, and Federico Leighton.

Aristoteline and aristotelone, unusual indole alkaloids from Aristotelia chilensis Phytochemistry, Volume 15, Issue 4, 1976, Pages 574-575 D. S. Bhakuni, Mario Silva, Stephen A. Matlin and, Peter G. Sammes

Fruit Mineral Contents of Six Wild Species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina. Biological Trace Element Research, Volume 125, Number 1 / October, 2008. María A. Damascos, Maria Arribere, Maya Svriz and Donaldo Bran.

Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Feb 13;56(3):627-9. Epub 2008 Jan 23. Seeram NP.

The alkaloids of the genus Aristotelia Aristotelia chilensis (Mol) Stuntz. Boletin de La Sociedad Chilena de Quimica, 42, 39–47. Silva, M., Bittner, M., Cespedes, C. L., & Jakupovic, J. (1997).

Glisodin

Glisodin is a patented 100% vegetable source of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). SOD is a super anti-oxidant produced within our cells to protect them from free radicals. As we age, our SOD levels go down. Glisodin increases your body’s production of SOD, stimulating the defense against free radicals, boosting your immune system and helping to protect your skin from sun damage. Glisodin may also prevent stress-induced impairment of cognitive function, allowing you to think clearly under pressure.

Selected Studies:

Superoxide dismutase: correlation with life-span and specific metabolic rate in primate species. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 77, 2777 – 2781. Tolmasoff, J.M., Ono, T., Cutlur, R.G., 1984.

Oral supplementation with melon superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defences in the brain and prevents stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. Behavioural Brain Research, Volume 200, Issue 1, 8 June 2009, Pages 15-21. Sanae Nakajima, Ikuroh Ohsawa, Kazufumi Nagata, Shigeo Ohta, Makoto Ohno, Tetsuo Ijichi, Toshio Mikami.

Enhanced expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase leads to prolonged in vivo cell cycle progression and up-regulation of mitochondrial thioredoxin.Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 48, Issue 11, 1 June 2010, Pages 1501-1512 Aekyong Kim, Suman Joseph, Aslam Khan, Charles J. Epstein, Raymond Sobel, Ting-Ting Huang.

Age- and peroxidative stress-related modifications of the cerebral enzymatic activities linked to mitochondria and the glutathione system. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 1, July 1995, Pages 77-101. Gianni Benzi, Antonio Moretti.

Oxidative stress and antioxidants: how to assess a risk or a prevention? Theoretical consideration and application to SOD-Gliadin.”Laboratory of Fundamental and Applied Bioenergetics.INSERM U884 and University Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble , France. Leverve, X.

Glisodin and Exposure to the Sun. An open study conducted in France on 150 patients by 40 dermatologists following a protocol compiled by Catherine Laverdet, M.D., Nadine Pomarede, M.D. and Catherine Oliveres-Ghouti, M.D. Sponsored by ISOCELL Nutra, France. (March 2005).

Ecklonia Cava

Naturally derived from a species of brown algae found off the coast of Korea, ecklonia cava is a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, serving to scavenge free radicals, chelate metals and donate electrons. It is a neuroprotective, potentially enhancing memory by increasing neurotransmitter levels. Ecklonia cava also has anti-bacterial properties, and is believed to function in wound healing processes, cell wall construction and vascular health.

Selected Studies:

Antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of an enzymatic hydrolysate from brown alga, Ecklonia cava. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 44, Issue 7, July 2006, Pages 1065-1074. Yasantha Athukorala, Kil-Nam Kim, You-Jin Jeon

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seaweed, Ecklonia cava. Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 136, Supplement 1, October 2008, Page S598. Yun Beom Kim, Young Gun Moon, Moon Soo Heo

Ecklonia cava ethanolic extracts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV2 microglia via the MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 47, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 410-417. Won-Kyo Jung et al.

Phlorotannins in Ecklonia cava extract inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity. Life Sciences, Volume 79, Issue 15, 5 September 2006, Pages 1436-1443. Moon-Moo Kim, Quang Van Ta, Eresha Mendis, Niranjan Rajapakse, Won-Kyo Jung, Hee-Guk Byun, You-Jin Jeon, Se-Kwon Kim

Antioxidant Potential of Ecklonia cava on Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging, Metal Chelating, Reducing Power and Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition. Food Science and Technology International, Feb 2006; 12: 27 - 38.Mahinda Senevirathne, Soo-Hyun Kim, Nalin Siriwardhana, Jin-Hwan Ha, Ki-Wan Lee, and You-Jin Jeon

Antioxidative Properties of Brown Algae Polyphenolics and Their Perspectives as Chemopreventive Agents Against Vascular Risk Factors. Arch Pharm Res Vol 26, No 4, 286-293, 2003.Keejung Kang, Yongju Park, Hye Jeong Hwang, Seong Ho Kim, Jeong Gu Lee1, and Hyeon-Cheol Shin

Protective effect of Ecklonia cava enzymatic extracts on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage. Process Biochemistry, Volume 41, Issue 12, December 2006, Pages 2393-2401. Kil-Nam Kim, Soo-Jin Heo, Choon Bok Song, Jehee Lee, Moon-Soo Heo, In-Kyu Yeo, Kyoung Ah Kang, Jin Won Hyun, You-Jin Jeon

Improvement of Memory by Dieckol and Phlorofucofuroeckol in Ethanol-Treated Mice: Possible Involvement of the Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase.Arch Pharm Res Vol 28, No 6, 691-698, 2005. Chang-Seon Myung, Hyeon-Cheol Shin1, Hai Ying Bao, Soo Jeong Yeo, Bong Ho Lee, and Jong Seong Kang.

Papain

Papain, naturally derived from the papaya fruit, is a cysteine protease hydrolase enzyme that possesses anti-inflammatory qualities. Its ability to hydrolyze large proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids assists in the digestion of proteins. In this way, papain improves the assimilation of both the egg white protein and the bovine immunoglobulin protein. Papain has also been used to treat edema, ulcers, and to help accelerate wound healing.

Selected studies:

Emerging roles for cysteine proteases in human biology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 1997. 59:63–88. Harold A. Chapman, Richard J. Riese, and Guo-Ping Shi.

Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 46, Issue 7, July 2008, Pages 2384-2389. Nor Suhada Anuar, Shafiyyah Solehah Zahari, Ibrahim Adham Taib, Mohammad Tariqur Rahman.

Role of proteolytic enzymes in biological regulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:3825– 32. Neurath H, Walsh KA. 1976.

Alignment/phylogeny of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases. J. Mol Biol. Berti PJ, Storer AC. 1995.

Neutral endopeptidase modulates neurogenic inflammation. Eur. Resp. J. 4:745–54. Nadel JA. 1991.

Organic Turmeric

Turmeric is a medicine and spice made from the root of the turmeric plant, native to tropical South Asia. It has been used for centuries in South Asian cooking and Ayurvedic medicine, where it is believed to have beneficial antiseptic, antibacterial and digestive properties and is used as a blood purifier, amongst other applications.

Scientific research has shown it to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, as well as the ability to selectively kill a wide range of tumor cells. Turmeric has been shown to increase glutathione and SOD levels significantly in heart and liver tissues depleted by inflammation. Turmeric is also currently being investigated as a treatment for Alzheimer’s.

Selected Studies:

Role of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane). Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 43, Issue 4, 15 August 2007, Pages 568-580. Santosh K. Sandur, Haruyo Ichikawa, Manoj K. Pandey, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Bokyung Sung, Gautam Sethi, Bharat B. Aggarwal

Curcumin induces the degradation of cyclin E expression through ubiquitin-dependent pathway and up-regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 in multiple human tumor cell lines. Biochemical Pharmacology, Volume 73, Issue 7, 1 April 2007, Pages 1024-1032. Bharat B. Aggarwal, Sanjeev Banerjee, Uddalak Bharadwaj, Bokyung Sung, Shishir Shishodia, Gautam Sethi

Immunomodulatory effects of curcumin: In-vivo. International Immunopharmacology, Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2008, Pages 688-700. Ch. Varalakshmi, A. Mubarak Ali, B.V.V. Pardhasaradhi, Raghvendra M. Srivastava, Sarvjeet Singh, Ashok Khar

Role of phenolic O-H and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1 September 2003, Pages 475-484. K. Indira Priyadarsini, Dilip K. Maity, G. H. Naik, M. Sudheer Kumar, M. K. Unnikrishnan, J. G. Satav, Hari Moha

Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: Evidence of its antioxidant property. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 3 April 2010. Suresh R Naik, Vishnu N Thakare, Snehal R Patil

Calcium D-Glutarate

Calcium D-Glutarate is the calcium salt of D-glucaric acid, made in small amounts in the body and found in fruits and vegetables like apples, oranges, broccoli and brussel sprouts. It has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-cancer properties, and is helpful in cellular detoxification, aiding to clear the body of metabolic wastes and toxins, and balance hormones and metabolism. It may also help lower LDL cholesterol.

Selected Studies:

Mechanism of growth inhibition of mammary carcinomas by glucarate and the glucarate:retinoid combination. Anticancer Res 1993; 13:2095-2100. Webb TE, Abou-Issa H, Stromberg PC, et al.

Cholesterol lowering effects of dietary D-glucarate. FASEB 1991;5:A930. Walaszek Z, Hanausek-Walaszek M, Adams AK, Sherman U.

Calcium glucarate as a chemopreventive agent in breast cancer. Isr J Med Sci 1995;31:101-105. Heerdt , AS , Young CW, Borgen PI.

Metabolism, uptake, and excretion of a D-glucaric acid salt and its potential use in cancer prevention. Cancer Detect Prev 1997;21:178-190. Walaszek Z, Szemraj J, Narog M, et al.

Dietary glucarate as anti-promoter of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 1986;7:1463-1466. Walaszek Z, Hanausek-Walaszek M, Minto JP, Webb TE.

Mechanism of growth inhibition of mammary carcinomas by glucarate and the glucarate:retinoid combination. Anticancer Res 1993;13:2095-2100. Webb TE, Abou-Issa H, Stromberg PC, et al.

Royal Jelly

Royal jelly is a food made by workers bees but consumed only by the queen bee. While the queen and the workers possess the same genes and anatomy, on a diet of royal jelly the queen grows one and a half times larger than the workers and lives up to 40 times longer. Royal jelly has been found to possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and immune boosting properties, amongst others.

Selected Studies:

Trace and mineral elements in royal jelly and homeostatic effects. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 19, Issues 2-3, 2 December 2005, Pages 183-189. Andreas Stocker, Peter Schramel, Antonius Kettrup, Eberhard Bengsch

Analysis of anti-allergic function of royal jelly. Natural Med. 55, 174 – 180. Kataoka, M., Arai, N., Taniguchi, Y., Kohno, K., Iwaki, K., Ikeda, M., Kurimoto, M., 2001.

The antioxidant properties of Royal jelly. Jpn. Pharmacol. Ther. 24, 1463 – 1471. Kuwahara, Y., Hori, Y., Yoneta, T., Ikeda, Y., 1996. [in Japanese].

Antiutumor effect of royal jelly. Folia Pharmacol. Japon 89, 73 – 80. Tamura, T., Fujii, A., Kumoyama, N., 1987. [in Japanese].

Royal Jelly prolongs the life span of C3H/HeJ mice: correlation with reduced DNA damage. Experimental Gerontology, Volume 38, Issue 9, 1 September 2003, Pages 965-969. Shin-ichiro Inoue, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Shimpei Ushio, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto.

Screening of biological activities present in honeybee (Apis mellifera) royal jelly Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 19, Issue 5, August 2005, Pages 645-651. L.A. Salazar-Olivo, V. Paz-González

Major royal jelly protein 3 modulates immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Life Sciences, Volume 73, Issue 16, 5 September 2003, Pages 2029-2045. Iwao Okamoto, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Toshio Kunikata, Keizo Kohno, Kanso Iwaki, Masao Ikeda, Masashi Kurimoto